shoulder exam

  1. how can supraspinatus be tested for? (2 tests)
    empty can test, jobe's test
  2. how can infraspinatus and teres minor be tested?
    resisted external rotation in neutral adduction (door opening movement against resistance)
  3. how can subscapularis be tested for?
    this is the strongest rotator cuff muscle. Gerber's 'lift off' test.
  4. what is the most common type of shoulder dislocation?
    anterior, but posterior for post-seizure, as subscapularis is the strongest rotator cuff muscle.
  5. what two tests can test for long head of biceps?
    speed's test (pain at biceps attachment when flexing shoulder against resistance), yurgason's test (shaking hands against resistance)
  6. what tests stability of acromioclavicular joint?
    scarf's test
  7. what tests for subacromial impingement?
    hawkin's apprehension test
  8. what tests for anterior glenohumeral instability?
    apprehension on cricket bowling position (NB: opposite for posterior glenohumeral instability)
  9. what are the tests for hypermobility?
    thumb abduction to forearm, finger extension >90, knee hyperextension >10, elbow hyperextension > 10
  10. what are the three rules of shoulder pathology?
    intraarticular = painful ROM, tendonitis = painful 1 plane, tendon rupture/neuro = painless weakness
  11. what screening test can you use?
    Apley's scratch test = scratch contralateral scapula
  12. What is the sign of erb's palsy?
    internal shoulder rotation, waiter's tip.
  13. which muscles are paralysed in erb's palsy and which reflexes are absent?
    deltoid, biceps, branchioradialis, absent biceps reflexes.
  14. what is the cause of erb's palsy?
    trauma to upper part of brachial plexus due to birth trauma, fall from motorbike.
  15. what sensation is lost in erb's palsy?
    lateral shoulder, upper arm, radial forearm.
  16. what is the cause of klumpke's palsy?
    injury to lower roots of brachial plexus
  17. what muscles are paralysed in klumpke's palsy?
    intrinsic hand muscles, claw hand, medial fingers + wrist flexors.
  18. What sensation is lost in klumpke's palsy?
    medial forearm, hand and medial two fingers
  19. what are the associations of primary frozen shoulder?
    diabetes, dupuytren's contracture
  20. what are secondary causes of a frozen shoulder?
    shoulder fractures, chronic rotator cuff injuries, immobility, cervical radiculopathy referred pain
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shoulder exam