Chapter 13

  1. Civil Rights
    The rights of all people to be free from irrational discrimination such as that based on race, religion, gender, or ethnic origin.
  2. Natural Rights
    The rights of all people to dignity and worth; also called natural rights.
  3. Affirmative Action
    Remedial action designed to overcome the effects of discrimination against minorities and women.
  4. Natualization
    A legal action conferring citizenship on an alien.
  5. Dual Citizenship
    Citizenship in more than one nation.
  6. Right of Expatriation
    The right to renounce one's citizenship.
  7. Women's Suffrage
    The right of women to vote.
  8. Equal Protection Clause
    A clause in the 14th Amendment that forbids any state to deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. By interpretation, the 5th Amendment imposes the same limitation on the national govt.. This clause is the major constitution restraint on the power of govt. to discriminate against persons because of race, national origin, or sex.
  9. Rational Basis Test
    A standard developed by the courts to test the constitutionality of law; when applied, a law is constitutional as long as it meets a reasonable govt. interest.
  10. Strict Scrutiny Test
    A test applied by the court when a classification is based on a race; the govt. must show that there is a compelling reason for the law and no other less restrictive way to meet the interest.
  11. Heightened Scrutiny Test
    This test has been applied when a law classifies based on sex; to be upheld, the law must meet an important govt. interest.
  12. Literacy Test
    A literacy requirement some states imposed as a condition of voting, generally used to disqualify black voters in the South; now illegal.
  13. White Primary
    A Democratic party primary in the old "one-party South" that was limited to white people and essentially constituted an election; ruled unconstitutional in Smith v. Allwright (1944).
  14. Racial Gerrymandering
    The drawing of election districts so as to ensure that members of a certain race are a minority in the district; ruled unconstitutional in Gomillion v. Lightfoot (1960).
  15. Poll Tax
    Tax required to vote; prohibited for national elections by the 24th Amendment (1964) and ruled unconstitutional for all elections in Harper v. Board of Elections (1966)
  16. Majority-Minority District
    A congressional district created to include a majority on minority voters; ruled constitutional so long as race is not the main factor in redistricting.
  17. Jim Crow Laws
    State laws formerly pervasive throughout the South requiring public facilities and accommodations to be segregated by race; ruled unconstitutional.
  18. Commerce Clause
    The clause of the Constitution that gives congress the power to regulate all business activities that cross state lines or affect more than one state or other nations.
  19. Class Action Suit
    A lawsuit brought by an individual or a group of people on behalf of all those similarly situated.
  20. Restrictive Convenant
    A provision in a deed to real property prohibiting its sale to a person of a particular race or religion. Judicial enforcement of such deeds is unconstitutional.
  21. De Jure Segregation
    Segregation imposed by law.
  22. De Facto Segregation
    Segregation resulting from economic or social conditions or personal choice.
Card Set
Chapter 13