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angular momentum
L=nh/2pi

Electromagnetic energy
E=hc/wavelength

Pauli exclusion principle
no two electrons can have the same set of quantum numbers

principal quantum number
n

azimuthal quantum number
n1

maximum number of electrons within a shell
2n^2

magnetic quantum number
l to l

Aufbau principle
filling from lower to higher subshells

Hund's rule
within a given subshell, oribital sare filled such that there are a max number of half filled orbitals with parallel spins

paramagnetic
materials composed of atoms with unpaired electrons will orient their spins in alignment with a magnetic field, and the material will thus be weakly attracted to the magnetic field

diamagnetic
materials consisting of atoms that have all paired electrons will be slightly repelled by a magnetic field

effective nuclear charge
 measure of the net positive charge experienced by the outermost electrons
 (increases from left to right)

atomic radius
1/2 the distance between the centers of two atoms of an element that are briefly in contact with one another
decreases from left to right

ionic radius
distance from center of the nucleus to edge of its electron cloud

ionization energy
energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous species
increases from left to right and from bottom to top

electron affinity
energy distance by a gaseous species when it gains an electron
increases from left to right and decreases from top to bottom

relationship between bond length and strength
inverse
longest are weakest (single)
shortest are strongest (triple)

normality
measure of concentration of [H] or [OH[

double displacement
metathesis



Arrhenius equation
k=Ae^(Ea/RT)
 Ea is the activation energy
 R is the ideal gas constant

exergonic v. endergonic
energy given off
energy absorbed

zero reaction order graphs
k=slope
linear line going down

kinetics of a first order reaction
curved line downward
the ln is a straight line where k=slope

kinetics of a second order reaction
large curved line down
ln graph is a straight line going up where k=slope

equlibrium onstnat
concentration of products over the concentration over reactants
Keq or Kc

Keq
Kf/Kr
k forward / k reverse

Q < Keq
there is a greater concentraiton of reactants; the forward reaction will proceed

Q= keq
reaction in equilibrium

Q > Keq
there are more products; the reaction is reverse

Change in Pressure and Volume on a Reaction
only gaseous species are affected
increase in pressure causes a decrease in the moles of gas; shift away


thermodynamic product
product formed at higher temperatures

isolated system
no exchange of heat, work, nor matter

closed system
can exchange energy (heat and work) but no matter

isothermal
contant temperature
internal energy is zero; Q=W

adiabatic
no heat is exchanged between the system and its environment
dU= W

isobaric
pressure is constant
pressure is constant; nothing changes because volume is the same

isovolumetric (isochoric)
no change in volume= no work
dU=Q

process functions
describe pathway taken from one equilibrium state to another
Work and Heat (W and Q)



boiling point
tempearture at which the vapor pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressur

relationship between vapor pressure and temperature
as temp increases, so too does VP

gas to a solid
deposition

enthalpy is equivalent to __
heat under constant pressure

enthalpy/ heat of vaporization
q=mL,
where L is the latent heat to describe the isothermal process; Latent heat is another term for enthalpy

quantity of heat required to raise the temp of something
q=mcdT

enthalpy calculation
dHrxn= Hproducts Hreactants

Hess's law
enthalpy changes are additive

Breaking bonds is
a. endothermic
b. exothermic
endothermic

another enthalpy calculation
dH(rxn)= H(bonds broken)(bonds formed)

entropy calculation
dS=Q(rev)/T
Qrev= heat gained or lost in a reversible reaction

What conditions make dG spontaneous and nonspontaneous?
+ dH and + dS is spontaneous at high T
 dH and  dH is nonspontanoues at all T
 dH and + dS is spontaneous at all T
 dH and  dS is spontaneous at low T

What is the reaction for dG of the reacxtion
RT lnKeq

Wht is the equation for dG for a reaction that has begun
dGrxn= dG^{o}rxn + RTlnQ=RTln(Q/Keq)

Relationship btw moles and volume
N1/V1= n2/V2





Kinetic energy
1/2mv^2=3/2kbT
kb is boltzmann constant

Root mean square
Urms=(3RT/M)^.5

Why are real gases not considered ideals?
Deviations due to pressure (as pressure increases the size of the particles is larger and they take up volume)
deviations due due to temperature (intermolecular attractions cause gas to have smaller volume)

molality
moles of solute/ kg of solvent

solubility product constant
Ksp=[A][B]
no solids or liquids in the equation; and there is no denominator

Solubility product constant increases with __ and deceases for __
increasing temperature for nongas solutes
decreases for gas solutes
higher pressures favor dissolution of gas solutes

ion product
same as Ksp but at a given time

Explain relationship between IP and Ksp
IP < Ksp: solutes continue to dissolve
IP= Ksp: solution saturated and at equilibrium
IP > Ksp: precipitation occurs

boiling point elevation
xT=ikm
where i is the van't Hoff factor; kb is proportionality constant, and m is molality



estimating scale values of pH
log(n*10^m)=log(n)log(10^m)=mlog(n)
p value=m0.n

titration of strong acid and strong base
 equivalence point
 starting acid value
 endpoint
7
very low
very basic
(steepest slope)

titration of weak acid and strong base
 equivalence point
 starting acid value
 endpoint

titration of strong acid and weak base
 equivalence point
 starting acid value
 endpoint
 less than 7

disproportionation
aka: dismutation
specific type of redox in which an element undergoes both oxidation and reduction in producing its products

Where does oxidation and reduction occur in an electrochemical cell?
anode is site of oxidation
reduction occurs at the cathode

Current runs from __ to __
cathode to anode

galvanic cells
connecting two solutions is a salt bridge
charge begins to flow
redox is spontaneous

Electron flow in an electrochemical gradient
A> C

What is the order of a cell diagram
anodeanode solution  cathode solution  cathode

= phase boundary  = salt bridge 

electrolytic cells
nonspontaneous and require input of energy
mol M= It/nF
ex: Calculating moles of Metal, It is not Fun

Electrode charge distributions
anode of galvanic cell is considered negative; cathode is considered positive (electrons move from negative to positive, while current is from positive to negative)
anode of an electrolytic cell is positive because it is attached to external voltage; cathode is negative

How do you figure out what gets oxidized and what gets reduced?
the more positive reduction potential is the one that is oxidized

Calculation for total emf?
Ecell= EcathodeEanode

Another equation for Gibbs free energy
dG=nFE

Nernst equation
used for determining cell's emf under situations taht deviate from standard
Ecell=Ecell(under standard conditions) (RT)/(nF) lnQ

