Nutrition Final

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  1. What is protein?
    Protein is a complex structure containing carbon,hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, and in some cases sulfur. These elements combine to form amino acids.
  2. types of peptides and protein
    • amino acids
    • Dipeptide
    • Tripeptide
    • polypeptide >50 AA
    • protein >100 AA
  3. Amino Acids Two type
    1)  Essential (9) Must be obtained from foods in the diet

    2)  Nonessential (11) May be formed in the body
  4. Plant Protein
    Incomplete proteins–Limiting AA:  A deficiency of one or more essential AA Legumes (methionine)           Grains (Lysine)–Plant foods are incomplete proteins–Contains a smaller concentration of protein
  5. Animal protein
    Complete proteins–Contain adequate amounts of all 9 essential AA–Are found in animal foods–Contains a higher concentration of protein
  6. What are some common foods that are good sources of protein?
    • –High
    • •Meat and meat substitutes (legumes)
    • Milk

    • Lower
    • •Starch
    • •Vegetable
    • •Fruit
    • •Fat
  7. Protein RDA
    • Age 19 and above:
    • .8 g/kg of body weight
    • .36 g/pounds of body weight
    • RDA is  48 grams of protein (60 x 0.8
  8. Protein AMDR
    • 10-35% of daily energy intake
    • Example - Female, 135 lbs (60 kg), eating 2,000 cal/d
    • AMDR of  10%  provides 50 grams of protein–2,000 x 0.10 = 200  protein Calories–200/4 Calories per gram of protein = 50 grams of protei
  9. protein functions in thehuman body
    • Structural
    • Transport
    • Enzyme
    • Hormone and neurotransmitter
    • Immune
    • Acid-base balance
    • Fluid balance
    • Energy
    • Movement
  10. Three of the top 5 most popular sport supplements
    –Protein–Amino acids–Creatine
  11. Do high-protein diets or protein supplements increase muscle mass and strength in resistance-trained individuals?
    • Research data are equivocal, but suggest additionalprotein may increase lean body mass but has no effecton measures of strength
    • Consuming protein after strenuous resistance exercisemay  enhance muscle repair
    • Whey protein:  in general show positive effects of whey protein supplementation
    • Colostrum:  may increase lean body mass, but effects on strength are mixed
  12. Do high-protein diets or protein supplements improve aerobic endurance performance in endurance-trained individuals?
    Studies do not support an ergogenic effect of high-proteindiets on aerobic endurance
  13. Glucosamine and Chondroitin
    May help prevent joint pain associated with exercise training
  14. Creatine
    • may enhance performance in very high-intensity exercise tasks, such as the 100-meter sprint in trackand sprint cycling
    • In general, research indicates  increases in body mass, mainlyas muscle tissue, in both males and females, including bothtrained and untrained
  15. Body Mass Index
    • A height to weight ratio
    • Body weight in KG ÷ (Height in meters)²
    • Body weight in lbs x 705 ÷ (Height in inches)²
    • Normal BMI = 18.5 – 25.0
  16. What are the values and limitations of the BMI?
    • Value:  A screening device for both underweight and obesity, both of which may be related to health problems–May be a useful guide to body weight for the average individual
    • Limitations:  Does not evaluate body composition.
  17. More reliable forms of measuring body fat
    • Underwater weighing
    • Air Displacement Plethysmography (APD)
    • Skinfolds technique (Cheap and easy)
    • Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry(DXA;DEXA)
  18. Body mass index chart
    • < 18.5 May signal malnutrition or serious disease
    • 18.5-24.9 Healthy weight range that carries little health risk
    • 25-25.9 Overweight; at increased risk for healthproblems, especially if you have one or two weight-related medical conditions
    • Above 30 Obesity, more than 20 percent over healthybody weight; poses high risk to your healt
  19. What is the cause of obesity?
    • The simple answer–Energy intake exceeds energy expenditure
    • The difficult answer–Involves a complex interplay of both genetic andenvironmental factors
  20. How does location of body fat affect health?
    • Android-type obesity (male/apple)--Abdominal region--Visceral fat
    • Gynoid-type obesity (female/pear)--Gluteal-femoral region--Hips, buttocks, thighs
  21. Very-Low-Calorie Diets (VLCDs)
    • Modified fasts–< 800 Calories per day
    • May be successful under medical supervision
    • Used as a first step in weight-loss programs
    • Possible problems–Weakness Constipation–Loss of libido-Decreased HDL–Decreased blood volume Cardiac arrhythmias
    • Best when coupled with lifestyle changes
  22. The Female Athlete Triad
    • disordered eating
    • amenorrhea
    • osteoporosis
  23. How may Calories are in a pound of body fat?
    •1 pound of fat = 454 grams

    •1 gram of fat = ~ 9 Calories

    •1 pound of pure fat = ~ 4,086 Calories

    •Body fat contains some protein, minerals and water

    •1 pound of body fat = ~ 3,500 Calories
  24. Caloric
    Concept of Weight Control
    •Caloric costs for changes in body mass

    –Fat = 9 Calories per gram

    –Protein = 4 Calories per gram

    –Carbohydrate = 4 Calories per gram

    –Water = 0 Calories per gram

    •Caloric cost of weight loss may vary

    •Loss of body fat, however, costs  about

        3,500 Calories /pound
  25. How
    much weight can I lose
    safely per week?
    •Without medical supervision

    –Recommended maximal amount

    • •Adults:  2
    • pounds/week

    •Growing children: 1 pound/week

    –Realizable goals

    •Adults: 1 pound/week

    •Growing children: ½ pound/week

    –Weight loss should be body fat
  26. Behavior
    Modification for weight loss
    •Learn new ways to deal with old problems

    • •For weight control, reduce or eliminate physical or
    • social stimuli that contribute to

    –Excessive caloric intake

    –Physical inactivity

    •Learn to eat a leaner, healthier diet

    •Learn to exercise more
  27. Diet
    and Exercise Behaviors
    •Establish long-range and short-range goals


    •Lose 10-15% of body weight over 4-6 months


    •Lose 1-2 pounds per week

    •Small behavior changes

    –“ Nothing builds success like success”

    –Small Steps
  28. Foods
    to eat when losing weight
    •Use low-Calorie healthful foods for snacks

    •Plan low-Calorie, high-nutrient meals

    •Plan your food intake for the entire day

    •Eat only foods that require no or minimal processing

    • •Allow yourself small amounts of foods you like, but stay
    • within daily caloric limits

    • •Know the Food Exchange system, particularly portion size
    • and high-fat foods and Calories per exchange
  29. Food
    purchasing when losing weight
    •Do not shop when hungry

    •Prepare a shopping list and do not deviate from it

    •Buy only nutrient-dense foods

    •Read and compare food labels

    •Buy natural foods as much as possible
  30. Food
    preparation and serving when losing weight
    •Buy mainly foods that require preparation of some type

    •Do not add fats or sugar in preparation, if possible

    • •Prepare only small amounts. Be able to visualize one
    • serving size for any given food

    •Do not use serving bowls on the table

    •Put the food on the plate, preferably a small one
  31. Location of eating while losing weight
    •Eat in only one place, such as the kitchen or dining area

    •Avoid food areas such as the kitchen or snack table at a party

    •Avoid restaurants where you are most likely to buy high-Calorie items
  32. Restaurant
    eating when losing weight
    When eating out, select the low-Calorie items

    Request your meals be prepared without fat

    Have condiments, like butter, mayonnaise, and salad dressing served on the side; use sparingly

    Order water, not a high-Calorie beverage

    Be wary of portion sizes as most restaurant servings contain 2-3 normal servings.  Ask for a take-home container before you eat and put half of your meal in the box.
  33. Methods
    of eating when losing weight
    • •Eat slowly. Chew your food thoroughly or drink water
    • between bites

    •Eat with someone; conversation slows eating

    •Cut food into small pieces

    •Do not do anything else while eating

    •Relax and enjoy the meal

    •Eat only at specified times

    •Eat only until pleasantly satisfied, not stuffed

    •Spread your total Calories over the day; snack often
  34. Mental
    attitude when losing weight
    • •Recognize that you are not perfect and that lapses will
    • occur

    • •Deal positively with your lapse; put it behind you and
    • get back on your program

    • •Put reminders on the refrigerator door at home or on
    • your telephone at work

    •Reward yourself for sticking to your plans
  35. minimum calorie intake for females
  36. Minimum calorie intake for men
  37. 1 pound of fat is how many calories
  38. How
    can I determine the number of Calories needed in a diet to lose weight?
    • •First, calculate how many Calories (C) you need daily to
    • maintain your current body weight

    • •Second, estimate how much weight you want to lose each
    • week.


    • –35-year old sedentary woman needs 1,820 C to maintain
    • current body weight at 140 pounds

    –To lose 1 pound/week would require a 500 C daily deficit

    –1 pound of fat = 3,500 Calories;  3,500 ÷ 7 = 500 C

    –1,830 ― 500 = 1,330 C day diet
  39. Why
    does a   person usually lose the most
    weight during the first week on a reducing diet?
    •Weight loss via dieting may come from decreased body stores of carbohydrate and protein and resultant body water losses, which require no Calories
  40. Why
    does it become more difficult to lose weight after several weeks or months on a
    diet program?
    • Body water losses decrease 
    • At your lower body weight, you need fewer daily Calories to maintain this weight
    • To maintain a set rate of weight loss, you would need to cut more Calories from the daily diet
  41. How
    can I determine the number of Calories I eat daily?
    • •Carry a notebook with you and a reminder, such as a
    • rubber band on your finger

    • •Record your daily food intake, and physical activity, in
    • detail, as soon as possible

    • •Record food intake over a 3-7 day period of time which
    • represents your normal dietary habits

    • •Use the Food Exchange System or Nutrition Facts on food
    • labels to record serving size and Calories

    •Use measuring devices, such as a measured cup

    •Learn to estimate portion sizes
  42. Is
    it harmful to overeat occasionally?
    Occasional overeating is not harmful to dieting, as long as it does not become a habit
  43. FITT Principles
    •  Frequency

    •  Intensity

    •  Time

    •  Type
  44. Comprehensive
    Weight-Control Programs
    •Comprehensive program

    –Behavior modification

    –Diet modification

    –Exercise modification

    •Most important feature

    –Maintenance of stable healthy body weight

    •Lifelong commitment
  45. What
    is more effective for weight control—dieting or exercise?
  46. the bottom line for Weight
    Eat less, move more
Card Set
Nutrition Final
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