Exercise 39

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  1. function of digestive system
    To provide the body with the nutrients, water, and electrolytes essential for health.

    Digestion: ingested food first be broken down physically (by chewing or churning) and chemically (by enzymatic hydrolysis) into its smaller diffusible molecules.

    Absorption: the digested end produceds can pass through the epithelial cells lining the tract into the blood for distribution to the body cells.
  2. Alimentary canal
    Approximately 9 meter long in a cadaver, but is considerably shorter in a living person due to a muscle tone.
  3. Organs of digestive system
    Alimentary canal: mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestine.

    Accessory structure: teeth, salivary glands, gallbladder, liver, and pancreas.
  4. Histology of alimentary canal
    Mucosa: surface epithelium (simple columnar), a lamina propria (aerolar connective on which the epithelial layer rests), and a muscularis mucosae (a scant layer of smooth muscle fibers that enable local movements of the mucosa). The function is to secrete (enzymes, mucus, hormones, etc), absorb digested foodstuffs, and protection (against bacterial invasion).

    Submucosa: dense connective tissue containing blood and lymphatic vessels, scattered lymphoid follicles, and nerve fibers. Its intrinsic nerve supply is called the submucosal plexus. Its major functions are nutrition and protection.

    Muscular externa: a bilayer of smooth muscle with the inner layer running circularly and the outer layer running longitudinally. Another important intrinsic nerve plexus, the myenteric plexus. By controlling the smooth muscle of the muscularis, this plexus is the major regulator of GI motility.

    Serosa: aka visceral peritoneum. It consists of a thin layer of areolar connective tissue. In areas outside the abdominoplevic cavity, the serosa is replaced by an adventitia, a layer of coarse fibrous connective tissue that binds the organ to surrounding tissues. The serosa reduces friction as te mobile digestive system organs work and slide across one another and the cavity walls. The adventitia anchors and protectors the surrounded organ.
  5. function of salivary gland
    To produce saliva.
  6. function of parotid gland
    To produce a serous, watery secretion.
  7. function of submandibular gland
    To produce a mixed serous and mucous secretion.
  8. function of sublingual gland
    To secrete a saliva that is predominantly mucous in character.
  9. function of liver
    To play an active role in the process of digestion through the production of bile.
  10. function of gallbladder
    To store and concentrate bile, a yellow-brown digestive liquid produced by the liver.
  11. function of pancreas
    To make exocrine cells that produce enzymes to help with the digestion of food.
  12. function of stomach
    To carry out the physical and chemical digestion of food.
  13. function of small intestine
    To be responsible for absorbing most of the nutrients found within your food.

    Duodenum: to continue the digestive process that the stomach has started.

    Jejunum: to absorb the majority of nutrients.

    Ileum: responsible for the absorption of B12 and the final processing of carbohydrates and proteins.
  14. function of large intestine
    To reabsorb water and mineral ions such as sodium and chloride
  15. function of cecum
    To absorb fluids and salts that remain after completion of intestinal digestion.
  16. function of rectum
    To act as a temporary storage site for fecal matter before it is eliminated from the body through the anal canal.
  17. function of spleen
    To be responsible for purifying the blood as well as storing blood cells.
  18. function of peritoneum
    the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity - it covers most of the intra-abdominal organs
  19. function of mesentery
    a layer of body tissue that attaches organs to the body.
  20. function of less omentum
    A portion of the peritoneum, the membrane encapsulating most of the organs within the abdominal cavity.
  21. function of greater omentum
    To be responsible for fat deposition and contains amounts of adipose tissue that can vary from person to person.
  22. function of tonsils
    To serve as the first line of defense in the immune system.
  23. function of villi
    To increase the amount of surface area available for the absorption of nutrients.
  24. function of plicae circulares
    To to increase the amount of surface area available for the absorption of nutrients
  25. function of haustra
    to separate solid/ liquid contents
Card Set
Exercise 39
Biology 103B
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