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Historical Archaeology definition
- is the archaeological study of societies that also left behind documentary and oral histories.
- subfield of archaeology that studies the emergence, transformation, and nature of the Modern World.
In North America, where do historical archaeologists typically work?
- on a broad range of sites preserved on land and water
- post-contact North America involves prehistoric archaeology particularly regarding native groups.
- Therefore, the prehistory of North America extends into post-contact period.
Historical does not automatically denote ____, but rather ________.
- such as: Land deeds, Legal writs, Census records, Letters and correspondence, Diaries, Ledgers, Pamphlets, newspapers, paper media, Photographs, Epigraphies
- also includes oral histories, which encompasses linguistics
study of inscriptions
- Located in foothills of Appalachian Mts. in western North Carolina.
- people worked here for over 20 years Occupied
- currently excavated by Rob Beck, David Moore, and Chris Rodning (docs friend)
- very large Native American settlement
- visited by Hernando de Soto and Juan Pardo (1567-1568).
- Juan Pardo established a fort at the site in 1567
- 1st european settlement in North American interior
- Lasted for 18 months, in which the native americans in Joara, rose up against the spanish burned down the fort, and expelled them
- initally only juan pardo's historical documents existed about the site and also reconstruction of de Soto's travel
- Until 2007 when they were able to uncover the site revealing the fort that was established by Juan Pardo
- De Soto died on the banks of the Mississippi and was buried in secret.
- grew to become the largest Mississippian settlement in North Carolina
- included mounds and public earthworks seen at contemporary sites elsewhere
- in Eastern United States
- Connected to Cheraw of the Siouan-Catawban language speakers
- Population decline due to european introduction of smallpox
- site abandoned around 1600 AD
- was resettled by Iroquoian-speaking Cherokee.
- The Catawba Nation likely represents the descendants of the people who lived at Joara.
- cheif of a range of settlements
- kidnapped by de Soto
- they came upon a site called Mabila a palisaded village that was under Tuscala's rule
- by this time Mabila had had enough and propsed to stay and let de Soto and his men get on their way
- de Soto refused, but was thus pushed out of the vicinity, which angered the europeans to the point they pushed their way through killed everyone except Tuscalusa
- the place was then burned down
- Native American group that lived in North Carolina and South Carolina.
- Lived along the Catawba and Wateree Rivers, which they called the iswa.
- They referred to themselves as the Kawahcatawba, or the people of the river(s)
- were at odds with the Iroquoian Confederacy, the Algonquian speaking Shawnee, and the Cherokee
- Cherokee struggled for control over the Catawba
- catawba allied with “the colonists” during the American Revolution.
- Peace Treaty of 1721 at Albany set border between Catawba and Iroquoian confederacy at the Potomac.
- very successful traders
- population declined due to smallpox
- this gave way for iroquian confederacy to move in and exert pressure through war
- treaty of Lancaster - between iroquis and colonists that cuts out catawba and now they had colonial backing
- catawba cheif was killed which marked the end of their influence on the region
- south carolina established a reservation for them in response to population decline
- catawba sold all their land in 1840
- they lose recognition from the american government and are now trying to reclaim land today
The Great Indian War and Trading Trail
- A series of trails and paths that ran from Alabama through Tennessee, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania.
- Another set of trails runs south through Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina.
- trails formed an extensive trade network and were major channel for material exchange, information, and war
- The Treaty of 1721 was successful, but it also gave colonists access to the trails in an effort to make peace between the Catawba and their enemies
- colonists inserted control over it and renamed the trails the Great Wagon Road or the Wilderness Road in the wake of the Indian Removal Act of 1830.
The American Revolution
- the US becomes its own entity
- not just about resource extraction, but about establishing and expanding borders
- this independence and incorporation into 1 country brings into question what to do with native groups already living in these areas
- G.W and T.J favored a policy of acculturation where native groups would convert to christianity and acquire western personalities
- discourse at the time recognized the 5 civilized tribes: Choctaw, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Seminoles, and Creek who assimilated
- the idea that indian nations should be autonomous was debated
- Andrew Jackson proposed that it is not possible to have independent nations exisiting within these new soverign states so he initiated the indian removal act of 1830 that moved them west of the mississippi
- they are subtly moving these disenfranchised groups into comanche territory outside of american influence.
What does comanche mean?
- people who are always fighting us
- comanche adopted this name, but originally called themselves Nemene "our people"
- conquistadors brought the horse over to N.A
- royal decree prohibited trade of horses to Native american groups
- native american groups sometimes worked as ranch hands managing horses and getting to know them
- Pueblo revolt was a result of spanish trying to convert native groups to Christianity, but the missions around santa fe area were very ridgid about this and forced religion, agriculture, and other material culture onto native groups especially denying them the horse. The pueblo revolt forced spanish to flee out of the region leaving behind horses
- almost immediately comancheria forms