physio final

  1. At standard conditions of temperature and pressure (STP),
    b. 1 mole of gas occupies 22.4 L.
  2. Movement of air into and out of a human lung is an example of
    e. tidal flow.
  3. Which of the following statements regarding oxygen in a solution becoming bound to hemoglobin is true?
    a. Oxygen that is bound to hemoglobin does not contribute to the oxygen partial pressure.
  4. Which of the following statements regarding the water beetle is true?
    b. As oxygen in the bubble is used up, oxygen diffuses from the water into the bubble.
  5. During gas diffusion, as the distance between P1 and P2 increases, the
    a. rate of net movement decreases.
  6. In diffusion, materials tend to move in net fashion from regions of
    b. high chemical potential to regions of low chemical potential.
  7. The respiratory gas(es) is (are)
    • a. oxygen.
    •  b. carbon dioxide.
  8. In oxygen transport to the mitochondria, diffusion occurs from the
    • b. lungs to the red blood cells.
    • . red blood cells to the mitochondria.
  9. If the percentage of oxygen in air at sea level is 20.95%, what is the percentage of oxygen in air at the top of Mount Everest?
    c. The same—20.95%
  10. Consider two gas mixtures at the same temperature. If the concentration of CO2 in Mixture A is 10 mmol/L and the concentration of CO2 in Mixture B is 30 mmol/L, which of the following is true?
    a. The partial pressure of CO2 in Mixture B is 3 times as high as in Mixture A.
  11. If the partial pressures of nitrogen, argon, and CO2 are 0.7808, 0.0093, and 0.0004 atm respectively, in air at 1 atm, what is the partial pressure of the oxygen in this air?
    c. 0.2095 atm
  12. _______ is the law that relates partial pressure and concentration in aqueous solutions.
    e. Henry’s law
  13. Which of the following organisms use CO2 during the day?
    c. Plants
  14. As a gas mixture or an aqueous solution flows, gas molecules in the gas or liquid are carried from place to place by
    e. convection.
  15. Which of the following statements regarding gas diffusion is true?
    b. Gases diffuse many times faster through the gas phase than through aqueous solutions.
  16. Which of the following O2 partial pressure values would you expect to find in the ambient air (AA), arterial blood (AB), and systemic capillary blood (SCB) of an animal?
    a. AA = 150 mm Hg; AB = 100 mm Hg; SCB = 70 mm Hg
  17. Oxygen transport in animals occurs by
    • a. diffusion.
    • b. convection.
  18. Gases diffuse in net fashion from areas of relatively high partial pressure to areas of relatively low partial pressure
    • a. within gas mixtures.
    • b. within aqueous solutions.
    •  c. across gas–water interfaces.
  19. What is the relationship between temperature and the solubility of gases in aqueous solutions?
    d. As temperature increases, the solubility of gases in aqueous solutions decreases.
  20. Which of the following statements regarding air and water is false?
    c. Air-breathing animals generally expend more energy ventilating than water-breathing animals.
  21. The gas-exchange system in birds is
    c. cross-current.
  22. In mammals, moving air into the lungs is achieved mainly by
    c. contracting the diaphragm.
  23. Which of the following uses a tracheal system?
    d. Flea
  24. The protective external flap that covers the gills on a fish’s head is called the
    a. operculum.
  25. Within the molluscs, a lung modified from the mantle cavity to allow respiration of air on land is seen in which group?
    a. Snails
  26. A blood sample that has an extremely low partial pressure of CO2 is most likely from a(n)
    d. animal exchanging respiratory gas with water.
  27. Which of the following statements regarding mammalian ventilation is false?
    c. Expiration always requires muscle contraction.
  28. The entrance to the insect tracheal system is via
    e. spiracles.
  29. In insects, oxygen moves through the tracheal system by
    • a. diffusion. 
    • b. rhythmic tracheal compression. 
    • c. convection.
  30. Carbon dioxide excretion in the bullfrog is
    b. highest across the skin at all stages.
  31. The partial pressure of O2 in the blood leaving the breathing organ depends on the
    a. flow of blood.  b. flow of air or water at the interface.  c. difference between the initial partial pressure of O2 in the blood and the air (or water).
  32. The bellows action used by birds in breathing is generated by
    d. expansion and compression of the air sacs.
  33. The major stimulus for increased ventilation in fish is
    a. decreased O2.  b. increased exercise.
  34. The maximal possible tidal volume is called the
    b. vital capacity.
  35. Which of the following is the best definition of external respiration?
    c. The process by which O2 is transported from the environment to the gas-exchange membrane and CO2 is transported from the membrane to the environment
  36. Which of the following animals use positive pressure ventilation?
    a. Amphibians
  37. In mammals, ventilation is modulated by chemosensation of
    a. CO2.  b. H+.  c. O2.
  38. Which morphology allows for the most efficient gas exchange?
    b. Countercurrent
  39. The substance responsible for the prevention of alveolar collapse is
    a. surfactant.
  40. Which animal group tends to have the thinnest gas-exchange membrane?
    b. Birds
  41. Which one of the following is not involved in the transport of CO2 from the tissues to the lungs?
    b. Carbonic acid made by carbonic anhydrase
  42. The process by which low pH aids in the decreasing affinity of hemoglobin for O2 is called the _______ effect.
    a. Bohr
  43. During exercise, the body supplies O2 to the muscles by
    • b. increasing blood flow. 
    • c. unloading more O2 to tissues from hemoglobin
  44. Compared to oxygenated blood, fully deoxygenated blood has
    a. a higher affinity for CO2.
  45. Which word best describes the mechanism for the steep portion of the oxygen dissociation curve?
    a. Cooperativity
  46. A reduction in the amount of O2 bound to Hb at saturation could be the result of the _______ effect.
    c. Root
  47. Bicarbonate created from CO2 in the red blood cell gets into the plasma
    c. via chloride exchange.
  48. Which of the following statements about the four chemical classes of respiratory pigments is true?
    • a. All are metalloproteins. 
    • b. All bind reversibly with O2 at specific O2-binding sites associated with metal ions.
  49. The extent of O2-binding site cooperativity is expressed using a mathematical index called the
    e. Hill coefficient.
  50. During chronic exposure to high altitude, increased 2,3-DPG
    b. increases the unloading of O2 at tissues.
  51. In people at rest, the approximate O2 saturation of venous blood leaving the tissues is
    b. 75%.
  52. Which of the following respiratory pigments contains copper at the O2 binding site?
    e. Hemocyanin
  53. During exercise, squids and octopuses meet their O2 demand by
    b. increasing their circulation rate.
  54. According to the _______, changes in pH are a means by which ectotherms maintain a constant state of electrical charge on protein molecules.
    d. alphastat hypothesis
  55. Which of the following statement about the Bohr effect is false?
    a. A higher temperature decreases the Hb–O2 affinity.
  56. Which one of the following has the highest P50?
    c. Hemoglobin in a human residing at a high altitude for three weeks
  57. In general, what is the relationship between primate size and Hb–O2 affinity?
    d. Smaller primates tend to have a lower Hb–O2 affinity.
  58. How many molecules of O2 does a molecule of vertebrate blood hemoglobin normally bind?
    c. 4
  59. Which of the following does not affect the properties of the O2 dissociation curve?
    e. Cardiac output
  60. Which of the following statements regarding hemoglobin is false?
    e. It is primarily an enzyme.
  61. In a fish that has an air-breathing organ,
    c. the blood leaving the ABO mixes with systemic venous blood.
  62. When a mammal exercises, oxygen delivery is increased by
    • a. increased blood flow. 
    • b. the extraction of more O2 per unit volume of blood that circulates. 
    • c. a lowering of resistance in the systemic vasculature.
  63. Excessive protein in the blood plasma will _______ the loss of fluid through the capillaries.
    b. decrease
  64. Which of the following statements about squid is false?
    a. Their systemic heart receives largely deoxygenated blood.
  65. In _______, there is no separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood at the heart.
    a. a teleost fish
  66. Which of the following statements about the insect circulatory system is true?
    c. Insects have an open circulatory system and a tracheal system for delivering O2.
  67. The hearts of vertebrates are myogenic, meaning that
    c. the impulse to contract originates within the muscle tissue.
  68. Mean blood pressure in the brain of a standing person _______ the blood pressure at the heart.
    b. is lower than
  69. The chambers of the teleost fish heart are
    d. the sinus venosus, atrium, ventricle, and bulbus arteriosus.
  70. Among nonavian reptiles, crocodilians are unique because they
    d. have a complete ventricular septum.
  71. In crustacean circulatory systems, deoxygenated blood from the tissues enters the heart via
    a. ostia.
  72. Cardiac output is directly proportional to
    a. heart rate.  b. stroke volume.
  73. The QRS complex arises from
    a. ventricular depolarization.
  74. Which of the following has the greatest effect on the flow of liquid through a tube?
    d. Radius of the tube
  75. Which of the following statements comparing the circulatory systems in mammals and birds is true?
    e. Birds and mammals have essentially identical circulatory systems.
  76. In the human heart, oxygenated blood is carried from the lungs to the heart by the
    e. pulmonary veins.
  77. In which of the following vessels is there a lack of pressure pulse?
    c. Capillaries, venules, and veins
  78. Flow rate equals the difference in blood pressure between the entry of the vascular system and the exit vessels, divided by
    b. vascular resistance.
  79. Which vessels of the systemic vascular system have the highest total cross-sectional area?
    b. Capillary beds
  80. In a mammal, blood pressure is lowest in the
    e. veins.
  81. Which of the following is the deepest diver?
    d. Crabeater seal
  82. The predicted dive time of a Weddell seal based on calculations of its oxygen stores is likely to be _______ the actual maximal dive times measured in the field.
    a. shorter than
  83. Which of the following oxygen stores (per kg) in true (phocid) seals, such as the Weddell seal, is significantly larger compared to that of a human?
    b. O2 bound to hemoglobin
  84. During a voluntary dive, a Weddell seal’s metabolic rate is _______ that of a resting seal on land.
    b. lower than
  85. During forced submergence, harbor seals deplete O2 in their _______, while O2 levels in their _______ remain high.
    During forced submergence, harbor seals deplete O2 in their _______, while O2 levels in their _______ remain high.
  86. In freely diving marine mammals, heart rate
    e. decreases in a graded manner with dive duration.
  87. Dives by Weddell seals are
    a. mostly short and shallow.
  88. The longest dive that can be undertaken without a net accumulation of lactic acid above resting level is called the
    a. aerobic dive limit.
  89. Which of the following statements regarding circulation and diving is false?
    b. During an episode of regional vasoconstriction, flow to parts of the brain is cut off or severely restricted.
  90. During a dive, blood pH tends to _______ due to an increase in _______.
    c. decrease; CO2 and lactic acid
  91. An animal’s maximum possible blood store of O2 is calculated by
    d. multiplying the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood by blood volume.
  92. Metabolic limits on dive duration are determined by all of the following except
    e. lactic acid clearance.
  93. Which oxygen storage compartment tends to be the largest in diving mammals?
    c. Blood
  94. Because of a regional vasoconstriction during a prolonged dive, the heart responds with a reduction in
    b. cardiac output.  c. heart rate.
  95. Fish removed from water are likely to exhibit
    b. profound bradycardia.
  96. The deepest dives of Weddell seals are at a depth of about _______ m.
    b. 600
  97. What is the primary cause of decompression sickness?
    b. Distention of lung tissue from rapid loss of pressure
  98. Following a 45-minute dive by a Weddell seal, circulating levels of lactic acid would likely fall to predive levels after about
    c. 70 minutes.
  99. One the most consistent features of diving species of mammals is that, relative to terrestrial species, they have
    a. very high myoglobin concentration in their skeletal muscle.
  100. In diving mammals, the thorax
    e. is freely compressible during dives.
  101. Which of the following organs plays the most important role in regulating blood composition?
    e. Kidneys
  102. As the difference in partial pressure increases across two solutions, the rate of evaporation
    d. increases.
  103. If ambient osmotic pressure increases, and an animal’s blood osmotic pressure increases at the same rate, the animal is a
    b. conformer.
  104. When blood cells are submerged in a hypotonic solution they will
    a. expand.
  105. If you conduct an experiment in which you submerge shrimp in an environment where the ambient osmotic pressure keeps increasing, the blood osmotic pressure of the shrimp will
    e. not change.
  106. An ionic U/P ratio that is less than 1 indicates that the urine
    b. contains less sodium compared to the plasma.
  107. The matching of ionic concentration in the blood plasma to the ionic concentration of the external environment is known as
    a. ionic conformity
  108. he salinity of freshwater is less than _______ g/Kg.
    e. 0.5
  109. Consider two animals with different body temperatures: Animal A has a body temperature of 25°C and animal B has a body temperature of 30°C. Which of the two animals would exhale more water vapor?
    b. Animal B, because warmer air holds more water vapor.
  110. Typically, if the interstitial osmolarity is 400 mOsm, then blood osmolarity will be _______ mOsm.
    c. 400
  111. Urine that is hyperosmotic contains a
    c. low amount of water.
  112. A person who has 42 Kg in water weight will have a total body weight of _______ Kg.
    d. 70
  113. Refer to the formula below. With regard to terrestrial animals, the rate of evaporation J will increase if the proportionality factor K
    a. increases
  114. A blue crab must molt about ______ times over the course of its life.
    c. 25
  115. Assuming humidity is the only factor that affects evaporation, which of the following animals will have the highest rate of dehydration?
    c. A mammal in a hot desert with a core temperature of 40°C
  116. Which of the following ions is the principal solute used to regulate cell-volume in mammals?
    b. Potassium
  117. When an animal loses water by evaporation, osmotic pressure in the blood
    d. increases
  118. Which of the following compounds does not tend to stabilize enzymes in cells?
    d. Urea
  119. The amount of water formed per 1 gram of carbohydrates metabolized is _______ g.
    a. 0.56
  120. Comparatively speaking, where in the body is water found in the lowest quantity?
    e. Plasma
  121. Which of the following organisms is most hyposmotic to seawater?
    e. Teleost
  122. Animals that ascend rivers from the ocean to breed are
    a. anadromous.
  123. If you were to decrease the calcium concentration in a freshwater fish’s environment,
    a. the number of its chloride cells would increase.
  124. In mitochondria-rich cells of marine teleosts, chloride moves by
    d. secondary active transport, using ATP indirectly.
  125. Which of the following animals has the highest osmotic U/P ratio?
    e. Snail
  126. In adult freshwater teleosts, gas exchange occurs in the
    e. lamellae.
  127. Which of the following organisms has the highest concentration of potassium ions in their plasma?
    b. Brown trout
  128. In freshwater teleosts, blood osmotic pressure is _______ mOsm _______ than the osmotic pressure of freshwater.
    b. 300; higher
  129. Which of the following organelles is most abundant in chloride cells?
    b. Mitochondria
  130. If the sodium concentration in a frog’s environment were to decrease to 0.01 mM, sodium intake from the environment wouldc. continue to occur by active transport.
    c. continue to occur by active transport.
  131. Which of the following structures in crayfish is analogous to the kidney?
    b. Antennal gland
  132. In adult freshwater fish, chloride exchange with the environment occurs primarily in the
    d. gills.
  133. If the chloride concentration in a frog’s environment were to decrease to 0.01 mM, chloride intake from the environment would
    c. continue to occur by active transport
  134. Freshwater animals transport sodium into their body from the environment via
    e. active transport.
  135. Species that are able to survive within a broad range of ambient salinity are called
    d. euryhaline
  136. In fish, movement of sodium across the gills depends on
    c. permeability, concentration gradient, and electrical gradient.
  137. In an experiment in which additional aquaporins are inserted onto the pelvic patch membrane of a frog, which of the following is most likely to occur?
    c. Water permeability will increase.
  138. The excess protons that fish gills pump into the environment are the product of
    a. carbon dioxide reacting with water.
  139. Which of the following animals has the lowest weight-specific total rate of evaporative water loss?
    d. Ostrich
  140. NKCCs in the mitochondria-rich cells of marine teleost are located
    a. on the apical membrane.
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physio final