1. Mycology
    the study of fungi
  2. 3 types of fungi
    • yeast
    • molds
    • mushrooms
  3. Fungi importance
    –Nature’s decomposers

    –A few are pathogenic
  4. Classification
    Based on sexual spores
  5. Fungi growth
    –Metabolize complex carbohydrates

    –Prefer slightly acidic conditions

    • –More resistant to osmotic pressure than
    • bacteria
  6. Fungi growth 2
    –Yeast – mostly facultative anaerobes

    –Molds – mostly aerobes
  7. Yeast

    Divide by budding

    Identification based on biochemical tests
  8. Yeast divide by budding
    –Pseudohyphae: false hyphae, results from a bud that fails to detach

    –Candida albicans forms a pseudohyphae
  9. Molds
    are filamentous fungi
  10. Septate hyphae
    hyphae that possess a septa to divide cells
  11. coenocytic hyphae
    hyphae that does not possess a septa to divide cells; one cell wall

    an organism made up of a multinucleate, continuous mass of protoplasm enclosed by one cell wall
  12. Hyphae
    a long, branching filamentous structure of a fungus

    hyphae are the main mode of vegetative growth, and are collectively called a mycelium

    A typical fungus consists of a mass of branched, tubular filaments enclosed by a rigid cell wall. The filaments, called hyphae (singular hypha), branch repeatedly into a complicated, radially expanding network called the mycelium
  13. aerial hyphae
    Some hyphae grow above a surface and look like branches of a plant.
  14. vegetative hyphae
    Some hyphae grow into the surface to absorb nutrients, much like the roots of plants do to gain their nutrients.
  15. Mycelium
    mass of hyphae
  16. Aspergillus
    common environmental mold
  17. Dimorphic Fungi
    have 2 morphologies

    Slow growing fungi that grow as molds at 25° and yeast at 37°.

    temperature dependent
  18. Dimorphic Fungi grows in the
    soil as a mold, producing spores that are often inhaled or introduced into the skin

    Grow in the body as a yeast
  19. Spores Made by Filamentous Fungi / Mold
    •Are reproductive

    •Not as resistant to environmental conditions as bacterial endospores are

    •Molds may make both sexual & asexual spores
  20. Sexual spores
    –result from the fusion of 2 nuclei from 1 (+) and 1 (-) mating strain of the same species

    •important for classification
  21. Asexual spores
    –make clones of the parent

    •Conididospore vs. sporangiospore
  22. Conididospore
    a special stalk or branch of the mycelium, bearing conidia

    A specialized fungal hypha that produces conidia
  23. sporangiospore
    a spore that develops in a sporangium

    sporangium - an enclosure in which spores are formed. It can be composed of a single cell or can be multicellular
  24. zygomycota
    rhizopus (black bread mold)
  25. Systematic fungal disease
    fungul infection deep within body

    •Ex.histoplasmosis & coccidioidomycosis
  26. Subcutaneous
    fungal infection beneath skin

    •Ex. sporotrichosis
  27. Cutaneous
    infects epidermis, hair and nails

    •Caused by dermatophytes, make keratinase. Can be passed from person to person
  28. Superficial
    •Fungi grow along hair shafts and surface epidermal cells, common in tropical climates
  29. Opportunistic
    pathogen that causes disease in immuno-compromised people

    •Ex. Pneumocystis in AIDS patients
  30. Lichen
    •Algae + fungi living in a mutualistic relationship

    •Slow growing

    •Produce organic acids to leech nutrients needed for growth from rocks
  31. Algae + fungi
    • performs photosynthesis and produces
    • carbohydrates which it shares with the fungi
  32. Fungi (lichen)
    • attaches both organisms to a rock, tree,
    • etc. and provides protection from desiccation
  33. Algae
    •Mostly aquatic, living in the top few meters of water

    •Simple eukaryotic photoautotrophs

    •Fix CO2into organic carbon, and release O2
  34. Algae 2
    •Reproduce sexually & asexually

    •Classified by rRNA, pigments, & structures

    •A few cause disease via toxins made by the algae
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