Plant Biology Test 4

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  1. Ecological roles
    • decomposers/detrivores
    • parasites

    • mutualists
    •     lichens
    •     endosymbionts
    •     mycorrhizae
  2. general characteristics
    • haploid hyphae
    •     coenocytic
    •     septate

    • mycelium
    • chitin in cell walls
    • always heterotrophic – digest then absorb nutrients
    • reproduce sexually and asexually
  3. phyla of kingdom fungi
    • Zygomycota
    • Ascomycota
    • Basidiomycota
  4. Zygomycota: bread molds
    • haploid, coenocytic hyphae
    • may reproduce asexually by spores

    • SEX:
    •     zygosporangium encloses zygospore (2n)
    •     zygospore undergoes meiosis to produce hap spores that are dispersed
  5. Ascomycota: sac fungi
    • includes many yeasts
    • hap, septate hyphae
    • often reproduce asexually

    • SEX:
    • 1 hypha produces ascogonium w/ many, gen identical hap nuclei
    • ascogonium produces outgrowth that attaches to antheridium on  gen distinct hypha
    • antheridium on hypha contains many, gen identical nuclei 
    • nuclei migrate: antheridium >ascogonium&pair w/ ascogonium’s nuclei
    • dikaryotic cells form, producing mycelium. dikaryotic cells at periphery of ascocarp undergo kayogamy
    • zygote (2n) undergoes meiosis
    • hap spores housed in ascus
    • asci break open, releasing haploid spores to start cycle over
  6. Basidiomycota: includes true mushrooms
    • haploid, septate hyphae     
    • seldom reproduce asexually

    • SEX:
    • 1 hypha fuses w/gen diff hypha & their hap nuclei pair
    • dikaryotic cells form, producing mycelium
    • dikaryotic cells make up stem, cap, gills of mushroom
    • dikaryotic cells on periphery of gills undergo kayogamy
    • zygote (2n) undergoes meiosis
    • hap spores (basidiospores) produced on basidium
    • basidiospores released from gills to start cycle over
  7. how carnivorous plants catch prey
    modified leaves:

    • provide containers with digestive liquids
    • act as snap traps (the original mouse trap)
    • secrete sticky substances (the original fly paper)
    • generate a vacuum (area of lower pressure)
Card Set
Plant Biology Test 4
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