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  1. Describe penicillin, the class, where is it metabolized? How should it be given? Whats the indication? Action? Side effects? Drug-drug interaction?
    • Ampicillin, piperacillin, oxacillin
    • Class: antiinfective 
    • Metabolized: in the duodenum and jejunum
    • Give: PO, deep IM, IV; PO on an empty stomach (1 hr before, 2hrs after) so the gut has a chance to absorb
    • Indications: soft tissue infections 
    • Action: destroys cell wall, a broad spectrum of bacteria 
    • SE: Gut, NVD, Lethargy, anxiety, depression, seizures 
    • Drug-drug: don't give with aminoglycosides
  2. Describe aminoglycosides which was the first developed? how is it excreted? action? Side effects?
    • Streptomycin was first; gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, tebramycin 
    • Excreted: by kidneys 
    • Action: disrupts protein synthesis 
    • Side effects: ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, anaphylaxis
  3. Describe cephalosporins action, side efects, where is it excreted? when should you administer?
    • First gen: cefazolin, cefalexin
    • Second gen: cefoxitin 
    • third gen: cefotaxine
    • fourth gen: cefepime 
    • similar reaction to penicillin; not absorbed in the GI tract; culture before wound prior
    • Action: inhibits protein and cell wall synthesis 
    • Side effects: diarrhea, rash 
    • Monitor: for superinfection 
    • excreted: by kidneys or in bile 
    • Administer: 1 hour before other antibiotics
  4. describe tetracyclines. where is it absorbed? excreted? action? indication? how should you give it? side effects?
    • broad spectrum antibiotic;  sumycin, minocin; 
    • absorbed: by the duodenum 
    • excreted: by the kidneys 
    • Action: inhibits protein synthesis in the cell 
    • indication: tx for acne and gonorrhea 
    • Given: i hr before or 2 hrs after meals; milk decreases absorption; dont give within 1 hr of bedtime 
    • Side effects: N/V, heartburn, steatorrhea, anaphylaxis, superinfection, abdominal distress, hepatotoxicity, renal toxicity, discoloration of the tooth enamel,
  5. describe fluoroquinolones indication, excreted? action? side effects?
    • ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin 
    • excreted: in urine, give with 8 oz water 
    • action: interrupt DNA syntesis
    • side effects:
  6. describe sulfonamides, side effects? action?
    • side effects: N/V/D, dizziness, abdominal pain, tinnitus
    • sulfadiazines, sulfasalazine, sulfisoxazole 
    • action:
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cc exam 4
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