TOUR2001 - test one

  1. Who are the tourists?
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  2. Homogenisation
    • the act of making something homogeneous or uniform in composition
    • Tourists are not all alike, in fact they are staggeringly diverse in age, motivations, level of affluence and preferred activities
  3. Emic research
    • Based on the perspective of the participant
    • open ended interview style of research
  4. Etic research
    • Based on the persepective of reasearcher on tourist behaviour through reports
    • closed questions involving predetermined categories
  5. Social representations
    Shared views often akin to stereotyping about a phenomena or group of people (such as tourists)
  6. What can social representations be tied to?
    • Nationality - diferrences in appearae and behaviour
    • Age - generational differences
    • Affluence (wealth) - particularly if wealth gap betwee hosts and guests is large
  7. Social Roles
    a role is a formal sociological term for the position a person occupies in society
  8. Role extensions
    • Role ambiguity - expectaions associated with the role are not clear
    • Role distance - disassociation from the role (eg thinking of others as inconvenient tourists when you are also a tourist - in line for a ride)
    • Role conflict - two or more positions that the person occupies result in a clash (eg want to buy souveniers however they are made in sweat shops)
    • Altercasting - adoption of a complimentary role to fit with others (eg tour bus - stuck on time and tour schedule)
  9. Classification of tourists - criteria used
    • Distance travelled
    • Purpose of the trip
    • Residence of traveller
    • Length of stay
  10. Liminality (Role Transitions)
    • Normal State - persons normal day to day life
    • Liminoid State - Threshold state in which the tourist is in a state of transition
    • Post-Liminoid State - return to normal everyday life
  11. What is market segmentation?
    the division of the tourist market into distinctive roups that are presumerd to be relatively homogenous (similar) in terms of their charactersitics and/or behaviour
  12. Reasons for market segementation:
    • narrowing the focus
    • identifying 'targets'
    • assisting understanding
  13. Examples of ways to segment the market
    • culture
    • religion
    • age
    • destination
  14. Segmentation trends
    • Mass market - "the tourist"
    • Simple marke segmentation - "older adults" "young couples"
    • Multilevel segmentation - "wealthy older adults" "asian older adults"
    • Niche markets - "postal code 0000"
  15. 3 step process to market segmentation
    • 1. divide (eg, geographically or by purpose of trip)
    • 2. differentiate (eg behavioural or by holiday activities)
    • 3. describe (eg demographically or geographically)
  16. Considerations for effective market segmentation
    • measurability - must be meaningful
    • size - is the market large enought to worry about?
    • homogeneity - group must be similar to each other but different to others
    • compatability - values etc of market
    • actionability - how will you access big/good enough market
    • durability - will the market last?
    • relevance - does the segmenataion make sense
  17. Approaches to market segementation
    • Demographic
    • Geographic
    • Behavioural "tripographic"
    • Psychographic
  18. Demographic segmentation
    • Gender and gender orientation
    • Education, occupation and income
    • Race, ethnicity and religion
    • Age and family lifecycle
  19. Geographic segmentation
    • Region and country of origin - continents, regions, countries
    • Sub national origins - postcodes, states
    • Urban and rural origins
  20. Behavioural segmentation
    • Trip purpose
    • Distance Travelled (long/short distance travellers have different needs)
    • Travel party compostion
    • Information sources used (marketing)
    • Destination coverage and trip patterns
    • Product use (activities, accommodation, transport, expenditure patterns)
    • Repeat visitation and loyalty
  21. Psychographic segmentation
    • Lifestyle (activities, interests, opinions)
    • Personality types, values
    • Needs, motives and emotions
Card Set
TOUR2001 - test one
Lecture Two