- the act of making something homogeneous or uniform in composition
- Tourists are not all alike, in fact they are staggeringly diverse in age, motivations, level of affluence and preferred activities
- Based on the perspective of the participant
- open ended interview style of research
- Based on the persepective of reasearcher on tourist behaviour through reports
- closed questions involving predetermined categories
Shared views often akin to stereotyping about a phenomena or group of people (such as tourists)
What can social representations be tied to?
- Nationality - diferrences in appearae and behaviour
- Age - generational differences
- Affluence (wealth) - particularly if wealth gap betwee hosts and guests is large
a role is a formal sociological term for the position a person occupies in society
- Role ambiguity - expectaions associated with the role are not clear
- Role distance - disassociation from the role (eg thinking of others as inconvenient tourists when you are also a tourist - in line for a ride)
- Role conflict - two or more positions that the person occupies result in a clash (eg want to buy souveniers however they are made in sweat shops)
- Altercasting - adoption of a complimentary role to fit with others (eg tour bus - stuck on time and tour schedule)
Classification of tourists - criteria used
- Distance travelled
- Purpose of the trip
- Residence of traveller
- Length of stay
Liminality (Role Transitions)
- Normal State - persons normal day to day life
- Liminoid State - Threshold state in which the tourist is in a state of transition
- Post-Liminoid State - return to normal everyday life
What is market segmentation?
the division of the tourist market into distinctive roups that are presumerd to be relatively homogenous (similar) in terms of their charactersitics and/or behaviour
Reasons for market segementation:
- narrowing the focus
- identifying 'targets'
- assisting understanding
Examples of ways to segment the market
- Mass market - "the tourist"
- Simple marke segmentation - "older adults" "young couples"
- Multilevel segmentation - "wealthy older adults" "asian older adults"
- Niche markets - "postal code 0000"
3 step process to market segmentation
- 1. divide (eg, geographically or by purpose of trip)
- 2. differentiate (eg behavioural or by holiday activities)
- 3. describe (eg demographically or geographically)
Considerations for effective market segmentation
- measurability - must be meaningful
- size - is the market large enought to worry about?
- homogeneity - group must be similar to each other but different to others
- compatability - values etc of market
- actionability - how will you access big/good enough market
- durability - will the market last?
- relevance - does the segmenataion make sense
Approaches to market segementation
- Behavioural "tripographic"
- Gender and gender orientation
- Education, occupation and income
- Race, ethnicity and religion
- Age and family lifecycle
- Region and country of origin - continents, regions, countries
- Sub national origins - postcodes, states
- Urban and rural origins
- Trip purpose
- Distance Travelled (long/short distance travellers have different needs)
- Travel party compostion
- Information sources used (marketing)
- Destination coverage and trip patterns
- Product use (activities, accommodation, transport, expenditure patterns)
- Repeat visitation and loyalty
- Lifestyle (activities, interests, opinions)
- Personality types, values
- Needs, motives and emotions