Is the teleological argument a priori or a posteriori?
Where is the watch/stone analogy set?
In a heath during a walk
What is the difference between the rock and the watch?
The rock is natural and has lain there forever, whereas the watch is designed and has not been there forever
What are the criteria for an object to suggest that it has been intelligently designed?
- It is made out of specific materials
- It has several parts
- It works for a purpose or goal
- It produces a regular motion
- It is indispensable (wouldn't be the same if it had been designed differently)
Why does Paley compare the human eye to the watch?
- The eye meets the criteria that suggests it was designed, as does the watch
- The eye must have an eye maker just as the watch has a watch-maker (God)
Does evolution undermine or support the teleological argument? Why?
Undermines it as shows that mutations require no intelligent designer as does the survival of the fittest
What is the anthropic argument?
A modern version of the design argument that works in the field of physics to show that the universe is so finely tuned in order to be able to support human life (which suggests design)
What is the Goldilocks Enigma?
Part of the anthropic argument that states that the universe is finely tuned in order to be able to support human life and that if certain variables were different, life wouldn't exist
What is the counter argument to the anthropic principle?
- Known as the weak anthropic argument.
- The universe is not finely tuned to us, we as humans have developed to be finely tuned to the universe
What are Hume's four criticisms of the teleological argument?
- 1. Like effects do not always have like causes, a watch has a maker, but the eye doesn't have to
- 2. The watch cannot be compared to the eye because the eye is natural and the watch isn't. Unsound analogy.
- 3. We have no experience of world making and cannot say how it was made, whereas we have a lot of experience about watch-making. we cannot apply what we know to what we can't
- 4. Wrong to conclude that the creator would be Christian God, could easily be many Gods or an evil God
What are the criticisms to the teleological argument?
- We cannot say this universe is created because we don't know the difference between a non-created and created universe
- Weak anthropic argument
- Order can come from chaos, some things look designed but they may not have always been