PSYCH Chapter 1

  1. Many early theorists were trained as
    Physicians or other types of science or philosophy. 
  2. What is Psychology?
    Psychology grew out of biology and philosophy.
  3. Introspection
  4. Behaviorism
    Watson and Skinner
  5. Humanism
    Rogers and Maslow
  6. Scientific Psychology stated in
    Germany 1879 with Wilhelm Wundt opened the first Psychology Laboratory.
  7. Definition of Psychology
    The science of behavior and mental processes.
  8. Goals of Contemporary Psychology

    To address questions in a scientific manner.
    Use Testable Hypotheses  (educated guess)
  9. Goals of Contemporary Psychology
    There are 4
    • 1) To address questions in scientific manner
    • 2) To investigate issues that are practically applicable (at least in principle)
    • 3) To grapple with some of the toughest questions-makes it challenging and frustration!
    •       ---nature vs. nurture
    •       ---ideas that are difficult to test
    • 4) Aim is a biopsychosocial approach
  10. Psychology's Biggest Question
    --Nature-Nurture Issue
    Are our human traits present at birth, or do they develop through experience?

    Plato= we inherit character and intelligence and certain ideas are inborn.

    Aristotle= nothing in the mind that does not first come in from the external world through the senses.
  11. Psychology's Biggest Question

    What is contemporary psychology's position on Nature-Nurture?
    Psychological events often stem rom the interaction of nature and nurture, rather than from either of them acting alone
  12. Psychology's Three Main Levels of Analysis

    Levels of Analysis
       --The difference complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.
    • Biological Influences 
    •   -Nature selection of adaptive traits.
    •   -Genetic predispositions responding to environment 
    •   -Brain mechanism
    •   -Hormonal influences 

    • Social-Cultural Influences
    •   -Cultural, societal, and family expectations
    •   -Peer and group influences 
    •   -Models and Media

    • Psychological Influences
    •   -Learned fears and other learned expectations
    •   -Emotional responses
    •   -Cognitive processing and perception interpretations
  13. Basic vs. Applied research
    Basic aims for increase the scientific knowledge

    Applied aims to solve practical problems.
  14. Psychiatrists
    a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatment (drugs).
  15. Counseling Psychology
    a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living and achieving greater well-being.
  16. Clinical Psychology
    a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
  17. Why is this a science?

    Isn't psychology mostly common sense...intuition?
    • Hindsight Bias--"I knew it all along Phenomenon"
    •     --The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. When two opposite findings both seem like common sense, there is a problem. 
    •     --Overconfidence
    •           This can lead us to underestimate our limitations.
  18. Scientific attitude
    • Scientific attitude combines 
    •    -Curiosity about the world around us
    •    -Skepticism toward various claims and ideas
    •    -Humility about one's own understanding
  19. Critical Thinking

    • It Does involve 
    •   -paying attention to content
    •   -questioning the source and the claim
    •   -thinking about the things in context
    •   -assessing how the data relate to the conclusion
  20. Scientific Method
    An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
  21. Scientific Method

    Creating a testable (falsifiable) hypothesis
    Usually derived from theory, uses operational definitions, and is replicable
  22. Case Study
    An in-depth analyses of special individuals (Sybil)
  23. Naturalistic Observation
    Watching and recording individuals behaviors in their natural setting (playground).
  24. Surveys and Interviews
    • Self-reports in which people answer questions about their behavior or attitudes
    •    -Wording Effects= subtle changes in the order or wording of questions can have major effects. (aid to the needy vs. welfare).
  25. Random Sampling
    Every person in the population (entire group) has an equal chance of participating. This would generate a representative sample.
  26. Correlation
    A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together and how well either factor predicts the other. What are positive and negative correlations?
  27. Does Correlation causes causation
    Not it does not (varies)
  28. Positive Correlation
    Between 0 and +1.00

    Indicates a direct relationship- meaning that two things increase together or decrease together.
  29. Negative Correlation
    Between o and -1.00

    Indicates an inverse relationship- as one thing increases, the other decreases.
  30. Three Possible Cause-Effect Relationships
    Low Self-Esteem----Could Cause----Depression

    Depression---Could Cause---Low Self-Esteem

    • Distressing Events or Biological Predisposition
    • Could Cause----Depression and Low Self-Esteem
  31. Experimentation

    What are the characteristics of experimentation that make it possible to isolate cause and effect?
    • Experiment 
    •    --Researchers
    •       1) Manipulate the factors of interest
    •       2) Hold constant (controlling) other factors

    • Create an Experimental Group
    •    --Where people receive the treatment 

    • Create a Control Group
    •    --Whose members do not receive the treatment 

    Randomly assign people to the two conditions to minimize differences between groups
  32. Experimentation

    Double-blind procedure-both participant and researcher do not know if participant received the treatment or a placebo.
    Placebo Effect= experimental results caused by expectations alone.
  33. Independent vs. Dependent Variables vs. Confounding
    • IV-the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
    • DV- the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the IV. 
    • CV- a factor other than the IV that might produce an effect in an experiment.
  34. Study Designs

    Methods of Data Collection Include
    • Case Study 
    • Survey- how you would your questions matter
    • Naturalistic observation- may involve deception
    • Experiment (vs. correlational study)
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PSYCH Chapter 1
Chapter 1 Flash Cards