Immunization and Immune Testing

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  1. 2 types of Acquired Immunity
    Natural immunity 

    Artificial immunity
  2. Natural immunity
    is acquired through the normal life experiences not induced through medical means
  3. Artificial immunity
    is that produced purposefully through medical procedures (also called immunization)
  4. Natural immunity term
    active immunity - the consequence of a person developing his own immune response
  5. Natural immunity term
    passive immunity - the consequence of one person receiving preformed immunity made by another person 

  6. Artificial immunity term
    Active immunity (same as vaccination) is the consequence of a person developing his own immune response to a microbe
  7. Artificial immunity term
    passive immunity - occurs when one person receives preformed immunity made by another person
  8. What type of immunity are vaccines?
  9. Variolation
    an early attempt to prevent small pox
  10. Edward Jenner
    developed vaccine for smallpox

    father of immunization
  11. vacca
    •latin for cow, root word for vaccine

    • –Cow pox virus later named "vaccinia
    • virus"
  12. Successful Disease Eradication by Vaccination
    • •Smallpox
    • –Last natural case in Africa in 1977

    • •Polio 
    • –Targeted for disease eradication by ??? look on recorder
  13. qualities of diseases that are good candidates for eradication by vaccination
    • 1. disease that stimulates production of effective antibodies
    • 2. disease occurs exclusively in humans
    • 3. has same disease signs and symptoms
  14. Goal of vaccination – “Herd Immunity”
    Protection of people that cannot get immunized. They can only be around vaccinated people.
  15. Is the flu vaccine attenuated or inactive?
    It depends.

    Nasal form is attenuated live vaccine

    Injectable is inactivated
  16. Attenuated vaccines
    live vaccine with reduced virulence, pathogen no longer causes disease
  17. Attenuated bacteria
    • BCG vaccine for micobacterium
    • Tuberculosis
  18. Attenuated viruses
    • small pox, Varicella - chicken pox, MMR - effective against measles, mumps, and
    • rubella
  19. Problems with live attenuated vaccines
  20. Inactivated vaccines
    Killed vaccine.  Made from infectious agent that has been inactivated or killed.
  21. Inactivated whole agent
    • whole virus is killed. Ex: IPV, Hepatitus A,
    • rabies, anthrax
  22. Toxoid
    • the tetanus and the ditheria part
    • of the dtap vaccine. Meaning they use the toxins that the bacteria produces as a vaccine. The vaccine targets the toxins produced by the pathogen
  23. Subunit
    • Hep B. they take a little part of it like
    • maybe the viral nucleic acids and they use that to elicit an immune response
  24. Conjugated
    Nemococcal conjugated vaccine

    Prevnar – for pneumonia
  25. Adjuvant
    • ex. Alum (aluminum hydroxide); mixed with
    • the vaccine to enhance the immune response
  26. Research into vaccines includes improving
    current vaccines
    –More combined vaccines

    –New subunit vaccines
  27. What would make a ‘perfect’ vaccine
    •100% effective after a single dose

    •Oral administration

    •Life-long immunity

    •Stable shelf-life, does not require refrigeration

    •Inexpensive to produce
  28. Monoclonal Antibodies (mAb)
    • •mAbs are Abs that are all exact clones of each other, they all bind to the same
    • epitope of the same Ag!  (ie.
    • 1 identical Ag-binding site)
  29. Monoclonal Antibodies (mAb) are made by
    •hybridomas (immortal B cells):

    –B cell fused to a myeloma cell = hybridoma

    hybridomas are long lived and produce antibodies
  30. Antibody titer
    measurement of antibody produced for a particular epitope
  31. Serial Dilution
    dilute the serum so that it is not so concentrated
  32. Method to measure
    usually ELISA, but could also be direct agglutination
  33. Rising titer
    • •when they take your first blood sample
    • and they check for a specific antibody you have a certain antibody level. When
    • they take it again if they see an increase in the antibody titer
  34. Seroconversion
    when you went to go get tested for (example) hepatitus and you had zero antibody. Then when you got tested again you had a number of production of antibodies. Meaning that you are infected with the pathogen
  35. Precipitation Reactions
    Involve soluble Ag

    Requires IgM- or IgG- class Abs
  36. Precipitation Reactions can detect
    1.Ag in patient sample – using known Abs specific for that Ag

    2.Abs in a serum sample – using known Ag (from a particular infectious organism)
  37. Where antigens and antibodies meet
    zone of equivalence

    precipitation forms
  38. ELISA
    enzyme linked immunosorbent assay
  39. Direct ELISA
    detects Ag in a patient sample
  40. Direct ELISA 2
    –Start with known Ab

    –End with Ab – Ag – Ab complex

    –Both Abs bind to different sites/epitopes on the same Ag
  41. Indirect ELISA
    detects Abs in a sera sample
  42. Indirect ELISA 2
    –Start with known Ag

    –End with Ag – Ab – Ab complex
  43. Indirect ELISA 3
    Uses a secondary Ab (like IFA), anti-human IgG coupled to an enzyme that will break the substrate down to cause a color change (seen in a positive reaction)
  44. Indirect ELISA steps
    • 1. antigen is absorbed to well
    • 2. patients antiserum is added
    • 3. complement antibody binds to antigen
    • 4. enzyme linked anti-HISG is added and binds to antibody
    • 5. enzyme substrate is added which may or may not change color
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Immunization and Immune Testing
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