Epi 1

  1. Which was the classic definition of “health” until 1941?
    absence of disease
  2. What does
    Sigerist's health definition say?
    • Health
    • = absence of disease + positive, a joyous attitude + a happy acceptance of
    • responsabilities that life imposes auferlegen on the individual
  3. Which was
    the classic defintion of "health" after 1941?
    • Health
    • = absence of disease + positive, a joyous attitude + a happy acceptance of
    • responsabilities that life imposes auferlegen on the individual
  4. What
    does Stampar´s health definition say?
    • Health
    • = condition of complete physical, mental and social welfare + absence of
    • disease or incapabilities unfähigkeit,
    • unvermögen/infirmity schwäche
  5. What
    does WHO´s definition of health say ?
    • Health
    • = condition of complete physical, mental and social welfare + absence of
    • disease or incapabilities unfähigkeit,
    • unvermögen/infirmity schwäche
  6. Positive
    facts of WHO definition of health:
    • health is
    • defined in a positive sense; the word “complete” is included; physical and
    • mental areas are considered.
  7. Negative
    facts of WHO definition of health:
    • welfare is
    • considered equivalent to health;
    • “completeness”
    • can not be reached when we speak about health;
    • static definition that does not consider current change in health condition;
    • subjective definition (welfare can not be measured)
  8. Main characteristics  of Terris´ health definition:
    • Different
    • degrees of health and disease;
    • health has 2
    • poles: objective/measurable (how much the patient can open the mouth ->
    • measure with ruler; capability to function) and subjective (welfare feeling)
    • poles in health and disease;
    • the word “complete” can not be
    • applied to health-disease-defintion;
    • “ability to function” is
    • included in the definition of health;
    • it is
    • possible to measure the “degree” or grade of health;
    • health and disease constitute
    • a continuum/equilibrium: passing from health to disease is a continuous
    • passage without gaps;
    • subjective aspect
    • (health:welfare, disease: being upset), objective aspect (capability to
    • function )
  9. Which is Terris´s definition of health?
    • It is a
    • condition of physical, mental and social welfare with capability to function
    • and not only the absence of disease or infirmity
  10. Dynamic
    health concept of Last:
    • health and
    • disease form a continuum in dynamic equilibrium. Importance of Last´s
    • definition: two key words: “continuum” and “equilibrium”
  11. Why “health”
    and “disease” can be considered dynamic conditions
    • In the
    • health-disease continuum it exists a neutral zone not very well defined, this
    • means that distinction between health and disease is not absolute, and often
    • it is not possible to distinguish normality from pathology. For this reason
    • health and disease are not static but dynamic.
    • Health is
    • influenced by social factors: education, economy, lodging, lifestyle
  12. What does
    ecologic health model say?
    • Health is
    • the result of the interaction among 3 factors: agent, host and environment
    • n
    • Agent: bacteria, virus (develops the action)
    • n
    • Host: the individual  (receives the
    • action)
    • n
    • Environment: modulates the interaction between agent and host
  13. Definition of “determinant of
    • - Peter Frank (XVIIIend):
    • describes factors leading to keep or lose health (determinants of
    • health).Poverty is the cause of disease
    • - WHO(1969):lack of education
    • and poverty are the main causes of disease
    • - Lalonde(1974):Canadian
    • Ministry of Health. Health level of the community depends on 4
    • determinants:Biology, Environment, Lifestyle and Health Care System
  14. Which are the 4 determinants of
    •  biology, environment, lifestyle and health
    • care system
  15. Which factors are included in
    “human biology” as a determinant of health?
    •  biological structure, genetic load, growth and
    • development and aging
  16. Which factors are included in
    “environment” ?
    • •  Biological contamination (virus)
    • •  Physical pollution (radiation)
    • •  Chemical pollution (Insecticides, CO)
    • •  Psycho-social and socio-cultural
    • contamination
    • --> could end in stress
  17. Which factors are included in
    • =health behaviours inadequate
    • eating, practice of sports, sedentary life, alcohol, tobacco, stress, dangerous
    • driving, drugs addiction, sex and games addictions,new technologies
  18. Which factors are included in
    “health care system"?
    • =the way health care is provided in a community
    • - Private-public
    • - Coverage of population
    • - Quality provided
    • - Rational use of economical resources
    • - Type of management and organisation
    • - Priorities
    • - Promotion of health, prevention of disease, treatment of pathologies
  19. Definition of Epidemiology
    • Etymology:“Knowledge about
    • population”, from latin:
    • - Epi: About
    • - Demos: Population
    • - Logos: Knowledge
    • Current definition: “science
    • that studies the occurrence of health and disease in populations”
  20. State 3 main
    periods in historical evolution of Epidemiology:
    • Until 1880: health statistics and miasmas theory (transmiiting by things floating in the air;
    • environment and poverty are the causes of disease);
    • 1880-1950:
    • infectious disease and microbiology theory;
    • 1950-current:
    • chronic diseases and black box theory (It's not necessary to know happening
    • factors neither pathogenesis in order to establish the relation between
    • variables)
  21. Definition
    of Epidemiology according to WHO
    • science that
    • studies factors determining  frequency
    • and distribution of disease and health in human populations”.
  22. State 5 objectives of
    What is epi useful for?
    !!!!short question!!!
    • n Investigate causes of health and disease
    • n Establish magnitude and distribution of health-disease:   Health diagnosis of the population
    • n Identify determinants of
    • health-disease
    • n Evaluate diagnostic and
    • treatment methods
    • n Establish probabilities and
    • risks to suffer a specific disease
    • n Predict course of
    • diseases:frequency and trends
    • n Describe natural history of
    • disease
    • n Health planning
    • n Assess functioning of health
    • services
    • n Assess effectiveness of
    • health interventions
    • n Identify new diseases and
    • complete clinical syndromes
  23.  Concept of “sanitation”:
    =environmental hygiene actions on the environment , directed to promote health and to avoid disease, control and regulation of personal and environmental factors
  24. State
    several actions
    in environmental hygiene
    • - drinkable water treatment,
    • -  waste control
    • - sewage control
    • -  physical contamination control
    • -  food and nutrition safety
  25. Which
    sciences are used in  sanitation?
    • Biology,
    • physics , chemistry, bacteriology, parasitology
  26. Preventive Medicine
    • part of Medicine aimed to
    • prevent disease and directed to promote health
  27.  Public Health definition:
    • group of governmental actions
    • directed to  promote health and to
    • recuperate it when it is lost, through organized efforts of the community
  28. Activities developed by Public
    •  health promotion and disease prevention,
    • restoring health or curing.
  29. Name 2
    important events that caused creation of Public health services
    • Chadwick report: it exists a
    • relation between poverty and disease
    • Shattuck report
    • ->
    • result of reports: creation of public health services to protect health
    • organized by governmental actions
  30. Environmental
    hygiene is a part of Public Health. Explain why
    • environmental hygiene or sanitation is one of the measures developed
    • by Public Health services: group of
    • collective measures developed by governmental action through specialized
    • Public Sanitation Services including waste treatment and disposal, foods
    • safety. Sanitation measures are directed to the whole community
    • Other
    • measures include: health promotion, disease prevention, disease curing
  31. Which is the
    most ancient record of Hygiene measures:
    • Levitic book
    • on the Bible
  32. Main
    contribution of Greek and Roman civilizations to Public Health
    • n Greek civilization: development of public
    • hygiene norms(personal hygiene, sports, beauty culture, correct
    • diet,environmental sanitation)
    • n Roman civilization: development of health
    • engineering (public baths, therms, aqueducts, sewage disposal , waste
    • collection and disposal)
  33. Main
    contribution of Hyppocrates to Public Health:
    • relation between
    •    - disease-environment,
    •    - etiology of disease and natural causes
  34. Main contribution of Sydemhan
    • 17cent.: Sydemhan creates
    • clinical history (e.g. anamnesis)
  35. Which is the
    main contribution of Graunt to Public Health?
    • accumulation
    • of data about the health of a group of population brings information about the
    • etiology of the disease.
  36. John Snow
    and cholera epidemics: explain his contribution
    • John snow
    • applied anfragen Farr's studies  in
    • order to fight colera epidemics in London between 1848-1854.  
    • Snow
    • studied  water supply companies in the
    • city of London, and worked out there was an association between the area of
    • the river course where the company was collecting the water from, and the
    • houses receiving that water , where cholera cases appeared. And resolved that
    • cases appeared where the supplier company 
    • was taking the water from the mouth (end) of the river, instead of
    • taking it from the start-up of the water course
Card Set
Epi 1
Epi 1