Food Standards and Food Spoilage

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  1. What are microbiological criteria?
    Microbiological criteria provide guidance on the acceptability of food and the manufacturing process
  2. What are satisfactory criteria for Campylobacter, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods?
    They must not be detectable in 25g
  3. What is the legislation for microbiological criteria in the UK?
    EU commission regulation on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs (EC No 2073/2005)
  4. Which two organisms does the food safety criteria of legislation mainly focus on?
    Salmonella and Listeria
  5. How often should sampling take place in a meat plant?
    At least weekly
  6. What are the microbiological criteria for individual foods?
    • Salmonella in meat, meat preparations and products thereof
    • Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods where produced in a plant supervised by the OV
    • Aerobic colony counts
    • Enterobacteriacae
    • E.coli
  7. What action must be taken if individual batches do not met the criteria?
    They must be disposed of safely or reprocessed in an approved fashion
  8. What are the different categories of bacterial spoilage organisms?
    Pathogens, incidentals, psychotrophs
  9. What are the different categories of fungal spoilage organisms?
    Pathogens, others
  10. List different places organisms in food can come from
    Animals, plants, the environment, pests, directly from handlers, water used in preparation, surfaces
  11. How can we monitor food?
    • Visually - state of package, surface appearance, deep appearance
    • Olfactory - smell
    • Gustatory - taste cooked/prepared
  12. List different mechanisms of spoilage
    • Sugar fermentation with acid and gas production
    • Protein hydrolysis due to bacterial enzymes ie proteases
    • Digestion of complex carbohydrates due to fungal enzymes i.e. pectinases
    • Lipolysis - lipolytic enzymes
    • Surface growth
  13. List different pathogens of environmental origin
    Listeria monocytogenes, aeromonas hydrophila/sobria/caviae, C. botulinum, Antrax, Mycobacterium, Mycotoxic fungi, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Blue green algae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus
  14. List different types of mould
    • "Black spot" - Cladosporium
    • "White spot" - Sporotrichum
    • "Whiskers" - Mucor
Card Set
Food Standards and Food Spoilage
Vet Med - Module 12
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