1. Schema theory
    interaction between efficient reading and background knowledge
  2. 7 characteristics of WRITTEN LANGUAGE

    - Processing Time- Distance- Orthography- Complexity- Vocabulary- Formality
    • - Permanence
    • - Processing Time
    • - Distance
    • - Orthography
    • - Complexity
    • - Vocabulary
    • - Formality
  3. 7 characteristics of WRITTEN LANGUAGE

    can go back to it
  4. 7 characteristics of WRITTEN LANGUAGE

    Processing Time:
    own pace
  5. 7 characteristics of WRITTEN LANGUAGE

    interpretation of the reader
  6. 7 characteristics of WRITTEN LANGUAGE

    written symbols which signal the reader what they must perceive when reading
  7. 7 characteristics of WRITTEN LANGUAGE

    readers must retool their cognitive preceptors
  8. 7 characteristics of WRITTEN LANGUAGE

    Lower frequency words
  9. 7 characteristics of WRITTEN LANGUAGE

    formal features
  10. Micro skills of reading comprehension
    • - retain chunks of language of different lengths
    • - recognize core of words
    • - recognize grammatical word classes such as nouns, verbs, and systems likes tense, pluralization
  11. Macro skills of reading comprehension
    • - recognize communicative functions of written texts according to form and purpose
    • - Infer context not explicit by using background knowledge
    • - distinguishing between literal and implied meaning
  12. 10 reading strategies
    • 1. Identify the purpose in reading
    • 2. Use graphemic rules and patterns to aid in bottom-up decoding
    • 3. Use efficient silent reading techniques for improving fluency         
    • 4. Skim the text for main ideas
    • 5. Scan the text for specific information
    • 6. Use semantic mapping or clustering
    • 7. Guess when you aren’t certain
    • 8. Analyze vocabulary
    • 9. Distinguish between literal and implied meanings
    • 10. Capitalize on discourse markers to process relationships
  13. 10 reading strategies

    Identify the purpose in reading:
    • know what the reader is looking for and
    • can weed out potential distracting information
  14. 10 reading strategies

    Use graphemic rules and patterns to aid in bottom-up decoding:
    phonics approaches with patterns
  15. 10 reading strategies

    Use efficient silent reading techniques for improving fluency:
    This doesn’t work with beginners because of their limited vocabulary, but with the intermediate and advanced levels use strategies to visually perceive more than one word at a time, and to skip over words that aren’t absolutely crucial to global understanding
  16. 10 reading strategies

    Use semantic mapping or clustering:
    grouping ideas into meaningful clusters
  17. 10 reading strategies

    Analyze vocabulary:
    looking for prefixes, suffixes, roots that are familiar, grammatical contests, semantic context
  18. 10 reading strategies

    Distinguish between literal and implied meanings:
    top-down processing skills, and implied information that isn’t directly written, but that readers must know in order for the text to make sense
  19. 10 reading strategies

    Capitalize on discourse markers to process relationships
    discourse markers signal relationships among ideas expressed through phrases, clauses and sentences
  20. different types of reading performance (3)
    - Oral and silent reading:

    * better for beginner and intermediate levels since, for advance, it’s not authentic language, and others can easily lose attention

    - Intensive reading:

    * focus on linguistic or semantic details of a passage, grammatical forms, and discourse markers

    - Extensive reading:

    * general understanding of a usually somewhat longer text, and is usually done outside of class time
  21. principles for teaching reading skills (7)
    - In an integrated course, don’t overlook a specific focus on reading skills

    - Use techniques that are intrinsically motivating

    - Balance authenticity and readability in choosing texts

    - Encourage the development of reading strategies

    - Include both bottom-up and top-down techniques

    - Follow the SQ3R sequence
  22. principles for teaching reading skills (7)

    In an integrated course, don’t overlook a specific focus on reading skills
    must not assume that just because learners are fluent in their native language that they should be left to learn reading on their own
  23. principles for teaching reading skills (7)

    Use techniques that are intrinsically motivating
    Focus on their goals of learning the language, use those kind of texts for practices
  24. principles for teaching reading skills (7)

    Balance authenticity and readability in choosing texts
    look for suitability, exploitability, and readability
  25. principles for teaching reading skills (7)

    Encourage the development of reading strategies
    Use many different strategies to teach them, but also teach the learners to employ these strategies themselves
  26. principles for teaching reading skills (7)

    Include both bottom-up and top-down techniques
    Still need to focus enough time in the classroom to focus on the building blocks of written language
  27. principles for teaching reading skills (7)

    Follow the SQ3R sequence (5)
    - Survey:

    * skim text for main ideas

    - Question:

    * what he or she wishes to get out of the text

    - Read:

    * looking for answers to the previous formulated questions

    - Recite:

    * reprocess salient points through oral or written language

    - Review:

    * assess importance of what has just been read and incorporate into long-term associations
  28. principles for teaching reading skills (7)

    Plan on prereading, during-reading, and after-reading phases
    - Before you read:

    * introducing a topic as well as skimming and scanning

    - While you read:

    * sense of purpose for reading

    - After you read:

    * comprehension questions, vocabulary study, identifying the author’s purpose
  29. product approaches to writing
    the essay, report, story, and what it should look like – matching up to a list of criteria
  30. process approaches to writing
    process that leads to the final written product, help students to understand their own composing process, help them build repertoires of strategies for prewriting, drafting, and rewriting, giving students time to write and rewrite,
  31. contrastive rhetoric
    The idea that each language brings its own predispositions in writing styles. The critiques were that they were too overgeneralized and simplistic, however there is truth that a native language will be brought into the target languages, no matter what
  32. characteristics of WRITTEN LANGUAGE from a WRITER'S POV (7)
    • - Permanence
    • - Production time
    • - Distance
    • - Orthography
    • - Complexity
    • - Vocabulary
    • - Formality
  33. characteristics of WRITTEN LANGUAGE from a WRITER'S POV (7)

    onceit’s handed in, it cannot be modified
  34. characteristics of WRITTEN LANGUAGE from a WRITER'S POV (7)

    Production time:
    usually has time limits (examinations, for example)
  35. characteristics of WRITTEN LANGUAGE from a WRITER'S POV (7)

    havingto think of their audience as they write
  36. characteristics of WRITTEN LANGUAGE from a WRITER'S POV (7)

    remove redundancy (unlike when speaking), how to combine sentences, make references to other elements in a text how to create syntactic and lexical variety, and much more
  37. characteristics of WRITTEN LANGUAGE from a WRITER'S POV (7)

    Lower frequency words often appear, which can present stumbling blocks to learners
  38. characteristics of WRITTEN LANGUAGE from a WRITER'S POV (7)

    Until a reader is familiar with the formal features of a written text, somedifficulty in interpretation may ensure
  39. micro skills of writing (3)
    • - Produce writing at an efficient rate of
    • speed to suit purpose

    • - Produce an acceptable core of words and
    • use appropriate word order patterns

    - Use acceptable grammatical systems
  40. macro skills of writing (3)
    - Use cohesive devices in written discourse

    - Convey links and connections between events and communicate such relations as main idea, supporting idea, new information, given information, generalization, and exemplification

    - Distinguishing between literal and implied meanings when writing
  41. different types of classroom writing performance (5)
    • - Imitative, or writing down
    • - Intensive, or controlled
    • - Self-writing
    • - Display writing
    • - Real writing
  42. different types of classroom writing performance (5)

    Imitative,or writing down:
    different practices in which teachers read out loud and learners write. Examples: teacher reads short paragraph once or twice, teacher reads paragraph in short phrase units of three or four words, during pause students write exactly what they hear
  43. different types of classroom writing performance (5)

    Intensive,or controlled:
    controlled refers to presenting writing in which they have to alter a given structure throughout
  44. different types of classroom writing performance (5)

    Diaries and journals also fall into this category, but dialogue journals are good since it includes a back and forth between teacher and student
  45. different types of classroom writing performance (5)

    Display writing:
    short answer exercises, essay examinations, and even research reports will involve an element of display
  46. different types of classroom writing performance (5)

    Real writing:
    - Academic:

    * convey genuine information to each other, content-based instruction encourages useful information, and some of this learning uses the written word

    - Vocational/technical:

    * within their occupation

    - Personal:

    * diaries, letters, postcards, notes, personal messages can take place
  47. principles for teaching writing skills (9)
    - Incorporate practices of “good” writers

    - Balance process and product

    - Account for cultural/literary backgrounds

    - Connect reading and writing

    - Provide as much authentic writing as possible

    - Frame your techniques in terms of prewriting, drafting, and revising stages:

    - Drafting and revising

    - Strive to offer techniques that are as interactive as possible

    - Sensitively apply methods of responding to and correcting your students’ writing

    - Clearly instruct students on the rhetorical, formal conventions of writing
  48. principles for teaching writing skills (9)

    Incorporate practices of “good” writers:
  49. principles for teaching writing skills (9)

    Balance process and product:
    carefully lead students through appropriate stages in the process of composing
  50. principles for teaching writing skills (9)

    Provide as much authentic writing as possible:
    sharing writing with other students in the class is one way to add authenticity, publishing a class newsletter, writing letters to people outside class, writing a script for a skit or dramatic presentation, writing a resume, writing advertisements
  51. principles for teaching writing skills (9)

    Frame your techniques in terms of prewriting, drafting, and revising stages:

    * reading, skimming/scanning, conducting outside research, brainstorming, listing, discussing topic/question, instructor initiated questions/probes, freewriting

    - Drafting and revising:

    * getting started, monitoring of one’s writing, peer-reviewing for content, using instructor’s feedback, editing for grammatical errors, read-aloud technique, proofreading
  52. principles for teaching writing skills (9)

    Sensitively apply methods of responding to and correcting your students’ writing:
    different corrections for different stages, for example, first draft, don’t rewrite student’s sentences
  53. principles for teaching writing skills (9)

    Clearly instruct students on the rhetorical, formal conventions of writing:
    make formal properties explicit
  54. How should students’ writings be evaluated?
    Content, organization, discourse, syntax, vocabulary, mechanics
  55. Define grammar
    Specific set of rules to help us in language use. Arrangement and function of words within a sentence
  56. treatment of grammar in the history of L2 teaching
    - Grammar explicit:

    * Explicit/deductive (give the rule, and from there, you give examples how rule is used) Grammar-sentenced, explain rules in students' first language. 

    - Audio-lingual method:

    * implicit/inductive Hear patterns and repeat them

    - Communicative language teaching:

    * fluent and accurate, how much do you teach (no focus to extreme focus)

    - Constant change in the way things are taught

    * dynamic field, constantly changing
  57. Celce-Murcia's 6 variables role of grammar
    • - Age   
    • - Proficiency level
    • - Educational background
    • - Literacy level
    • - Language skills
    • - Style (register)
  58. Celce-Murcia's 6 variables role of grammar

    - Kids:

    * grammar should not be taught explicitly because they can't process abstract concepts because their cognitive development isn't completed yet. See examples and are exposed of the application of the rules

    - Adults:

    * grammar can be taught explicitly because they are capable of handling abstract rules because their cognitive development (if they are literate). Knowing the rules can accelerate the learning. Contextualize the rules - show you use of rule in different contexts
  59. Celce-Murcia's 6 variables role of grammar

    Proficiency level:
    - How much they know already. Allowing students to learn fluency in the beginning, and then focus on accuracy as they progress. Reason for this is because at the beginning, there will be a lot of errors, and to correct them wouldn't stop and would discourage them from even opening their mouths. A continuum, as they progress. Want students to gain confidence in speaking and acquire fluency, and as they progress, you focus more and form on form of the production
  60. Celce-Murcia's 6 variables role of grammar

    Educational background:
    Literacy level - if you've never learned to read or write, you have to learn those things from scratch. For illiterate people, less grammar (and less abstract thinking - a little like children learning a second language)
  61. Celce-Murcia's 6 variables role of grammar

    Style (register):
    the different between speaking with friends or with a teacher, and writing an essay in comparison to a quick email message
  62. 4 issues regarding how to teach grammar

    Should I teach grammar explicitly or if students should pick it up implicitly?
    Depends on goals and needs of the students and program (who am I teaching, why are they learning the language, goals and needs of students, needs of the program?)

    Inductive is better since there is more in keeping natural language acquisition, it conforms more easily to the concept of interlanguage development, allows students to get a communicative “feel” for some aspect of language, it builds more intrinsic motivation by allowing students to discover rules rather than being told them
  63. 4 issues regarding how to teach grammar

    Should we use grammatical explanations and technical terminology in a CLT classroom?
    Keep explanations brief and simple, use charts and other visuals whenever possible, illustrate with clear examples
  64. 4 issues regarding how to teach grammar

    Should teachers correct grammatical errors?
    Local ones, no, but global errors impede meaning, so yes

    don't overcorrect but don't let it fossilize, correct global errors, especially if beginners
  65. 4 issues regarding how to teach grammar

    should I teach grammar separately or integrate it?
    integrate, contextualize it
  66. criteria for grammatical sequencing
    start simple, and become more complex, use logical sequencing. Sometimes, in some programs and textbooks, sequence is on students' needs instead, specific context (ordering food, inviting, etc.) the teaching of function
  67. guidelines for teaching L2 vocabulary
    - Allocate specific class time to vocabulary learning

    - Help students to learn vocabulary in context

    - Play down the role of bilingual dictionaries

    - Encourage students to develop strategies for determining the meaning of words

    - Engage in “unplanned” vocabulary teaching
  68. reasons for integrating the language skills in L2 teaching
    Production and reception are two sides of the same coin, written and spoken language often bear a relationship to each other, often one skill will reinforce another
  69. 5 models of skills integration
    - Use environmental statistics and facts for classroom reading, writing, discussion, and debate

    - Carry out research and writing projects

    - Have students create their own environmental awareness material

    - Arrange field trips

    - Conduct simulation games
  70. testing vs. assessment
    assessment could be ongoing, could be done by teacher, or student themselves, or peers
  71. 5 principles to guide testing/assessment
    • - practicality
    • - reliability
    • - validity
    • - authenticity
    • - washback
  72. 5 principles to guide testing/assessment

    - cost constraints

    - software to make, everyone needs computer in front of them to do it, have people observe the test 

    • - time constraints - how long does it take to make, how long does it take to take the
    • test, scoring the test

    - Both making the test, taking the test, and scoring the test (and how to interpret the results of the test) has to take into consideration the time and financial restraints. Is this test practical?
  73. 5 principles to guide testing/assessment

    - Dependability. If administer the same test to the same group, under the same circumstances, will it give the same results? (Under the same conditions). Consistency. Test and retest (not exactly the same because not all circumstances can be exactly the same)

    - Same composition was scored differently by two different teachers, why? Instructions on what to look for when grading, like in composition (marks for (aspects) content, organization, coherence, vocabulary, grammar, language aspect). If there are criteria to follow, it helps to have similar grading
  74. 5 principles to guide testing/assessment

    • - It tests what it supposed to be testing. 
    • - content validity - representative sample of what you're testing your students on (what has been covered in class is not well sampled in the test)

    - face validity - appearance of the test, does it look like the test that it should be

    - construct validity - components of the test correspond to the components of that construct

    - How to know if a test has validity? Research, by looking at correlations in comparisons to other tests
  75. 5 principles to guide testing/assessment

    Corresponds to what you're supposed to be doing in real life. simulation of the kinds of tasks they'll be using the language for in real life situations
  76. 5 principles to guide testing/assessment

    Before you take the test, what is the effect of this test on learning and teaching? Make a test and tell all students that at the end of course, students are going to take this test to see if students have learned what they were supposed. Teacher will concentrate on teaching material that is on test (teach to the test). Only teach what's specifically on the test.
  77. Proficiency test:
    machinescorable, TOFOL, admission purposes
  78. Diagnostic test
    beginning, or middle (what they know, what they don't know, progress)
  79. Placement test:
    fit into aplace, a level, placed in right course
  80. Achievement test:
    objects, test if you've achieved the objectives of that course
  81. Aptitude test:
    talent, predict level of success in learning languages. Can demotivate the learner if not scoring a good test
  82. define discrete test:
    break down the components and test those, separate them
  83. define integrative test:
    test as a whole (example: more than one language components)Cloze testing (fill in blank), dictation
  84. Formative test:
    as you go, as you progress in the program
  85. summative test:
    final (at the end)
  86. characteristics of good language teachers
    - Technical knowledge

    - Pedagogical skills

    - Interpersonal skills

    - Personal qualities

    - Should like to teach

    - Have realistic goals in what you can achieve, both long and short term

    - Aware of your own limitations (draw on your strengths to compensate)

    • - Set priorities, balance personal and professional life
    • - Taking risks, teach with different methods to adjust to how to teach student population

    - Prior knowledge of learning foreign languages, develops empathy

    - Reflection, observing what is done in class, evaluating it, does it work, why/why not?

    - Openness to new ideas, flexible, alternatives, relationship

    - “Think on your feet”, adaptation

    - Knowledge of the subject matter, knowledge of teaching

    - Awareness of different cultures, enjoying, using them

    - Enjoy having different kind of people in your classroom, firm but flexible
  87. 3 ways for teacher development
    • - Classroom observation
    • - Action research
    • - Teacher collaboration
  88. 3 ways for teacher development

    Classroom observation:
    • - observing other teachers
    • - self-evaluation
  89. 3 ways for teacher development

    Action research:
    - Teachers doing research on their teaching/classroom

    - Interactions, activities --> do they work? Why/why not?

    - Have research question
  90. 3 ways for teacher development

    Teacher collaboration:
    • - Two teachers at the same time
    • - Two teachers every other day
    • - Two teachers who teach specific subjects during the day
    • - Can do action research together
    • - Can develop materials together
    • - Curriculum development
    • - Learn something from others at conferences
  91. 4 individual ways for professional development
    • - Teaching journals
    • - Teaching portfolios
    • - Professional reading on your own
    • - Writing for publication
  92. critical pedagogy
    Moral principles, our beliefs about education
Card Set