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How can we know if people know about things they cannot see?
- Jusczyk (1999)
- Infants showed video of what appears to be a green rod passing behind a blue rectangle
- Showed 2 screens with either the entire rod or a rod that is missing the part was obscured
- Looked longer at the latter suggesting they were surprised and believed that they were looking at a full bar
When do babies gain the ability to know about things they cannot see?
- 4-6 months? Johnson (2003)
- Eye tracked 4 month old infant watching a video of a ball passing behind a rectangle
- Eye tracking suggested it was surprised each time the ball re-emerged
- 6 month baby anticipates the re-emergance of the ball
What is A not B error?
- Pioneered by Piaget
- An experimenter hides an attractive toy under box "A" within the baby's reach.
- The baby searches for the toy, looks under box "A", and finds the toy.
- This activity is usually repeated several times (always with the researcher hiding the toy under box "A"). Then, in the critical trial, the experimenter moves the toy under box "B", also within easy reach of the baby.
- Babies of 10 months or younger typically make the perseveration error, meaning they look under box "A" even though they saw the researcher move the toy under box "B", and box "B" is just as easy to reach
Why does A not B error occur?
- What the baby is learning is that reaching for the right is associated with a reward
- Smith & Thelen (2004) gave baby a spangly glove and made lights flash in the first 2 reaches to the A location
- 10 month old babies generally don't fall for it but increasing the ease of learning for the first trial means babies of 10 months are fooled
How old are infants when they are first aware of occluded objects?
- 2 months (Jusczyk, 1999)
- 7 Months (A not B
- 10 Months (Smith & Thelen, 1994)
Heider & Simmel (1944)
- P's showed a film of three shapes moving and asked to describe it
- Non autistic p's described the movement in terms of motivation, embodying the shapes with emotions and human characteristics
- Autistic p's described them as simple motion between shapes
What is the visual cliff experiment?
- Gibson & Walk (1960)
- Baby crawls to what appears to be a drop (using mirrors)
- Looks at mother, if she smiles they proceed and go down, if they act scared they back off
- Is this evidence for the baby thinking the mother has a mind?
When do babies start to follow one's gaze?
- Infants are sensitive to gaze contact from birth - Farroni et al (2002)
- Gaze followed from 6 months (D'Entremont et al (1997)
- Kids have debelpoing expectation and responses to gaze (Wu & Kirkham, 2010)
Can kids really think properly?
- They should be able to act upon knowledge and predict behaviours
- Should not be affected by false beliefs
- Not the case (Wimmer & Perner, 1983)
- Told about a boy who puts his chocolate in the cupboard but his mother later moves it to the fridge
- Asked where the boy would look
- 3 years old: cupboard
- 5 years old: fridge
- Not the case (Perner et al, 1987)
- Showed smartie tube and revealed that it is full of pencils
- Ask p's what their friend would say was inside
- 3 years old: pencils (then refuse to believe that anyone wouldn't think this, this is egocentrism)
- 5 years old: smarties
- KIDS DON'T KNOW SHIT
How does our inhibitory ability change?
- A not B error
- Egocentrism in smartie tasks
- Realising people don't know what is going through our heads
- BUT things like tapping a rhythm involves us assuming others can hear what you hear in your head