growth & development FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE

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  1. What are autistic spectrum disorders?
    any of several disorders characterized by inadequate social skills, impaired communication, and unusual play.
  2. What are the major features of ADHD? Autism?
    ADHD: difficulty paying attention, impulse to be unusually active, inattentive, impulsive. Autism: inadequate social skills,
  3. What is the HPA axis? (what relationship does it have to puberty)
    • (hypthalamus-pituitary-gonad axis) a sequence of hormone production originating in the hypothalamus and moving to the pituitary and then to the gonads. 
    • these released hormones affect the body's entire shape and functioning during puberty
  4. What is puberty? What are some of the differences we see worldwide (Africa, China, urban/rural)
    sexual maturation. the time b/w the first onrush of hormones and full adult physical development.
  5. What is adolescence?
    the period following the onset of puberty during which a young person develops from a child into an adult.
  6. What is spermarche?
    a boy's first ejaculation of sperm.
  7. What is menarche?
    a girl's first menstrual period.
  8. What is a secular trend?
    seeing girls get their periods at younger ages.
  9. Describe secondary sexual characteristics that emerge during adolescence:
    • body shape: breasts, wider hips, broadened shoulders. 
    • deepening of voice
    • hair growth
  10. Be familiar with the cultural differences in sexual activity (pp. 394-395)
  11. What risks are associated with early maturation in girls?  Do late maturing boys experience the same degree of trouble?
    • the girl might get teased, get unwanted attention from older men. struggle with her body image. 
    • late maturing boys tend to be more anxious, depressed, and afraid of sex.
  12. Describe bulimia and anorexia
    • Anorexia: ED characterized by self-starvation. affected individuals voluntarily undereat and often overexercise, depriving their vital organs of nutrition. (can be fatal) 
    • Bulimia: ED characterized by binge eating and subsequent purging, usually by induced vomiting and/or use of laxatives.
  13. List at least 2 consequences of each of the above disorders
    Anorexia: muscles waste away, brittle bones. 

    Bulimia: Irregular HB, liver and kidney damage.
  14. Discuss (briefly) alcohol and drug use during adolescence.
    49% of teens said to have used.
  15. What is the difference between drug abuse and drug addiction/dependence?
    drug abuse: the habitual taking of addictive or illegal drugs

    drug addiction/dependence: drug addiction is defined as a chronic, relapsing brain disease that is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences.
  16. When a neuron’s receptors are continuously stimulated with dopamine (e.g., through drug use), what happens to the receptors?
    they eventually stop working.
  17. Why do adolescents who have abused drugs (such as cocaine) have difficulty experiencing pleasure when sober?
    because their dopamine receptors stop working.
  18. What did the film clip identify as significant risk factors for alcoholism?
    low response to alcohol and alcoholism in the family, more likely to be an alcoholic.
  19. Describe the formal operational stage.
    • child is able to abstract. 
    • devil's advocate>> "why shouldn't we celebrate birthdays?"
  20. List/describe 4 characteristics of adolescent thought
    • adolescent egocentrism: 'everyone's interested in my opinion'
    • imaginary audience: 'everyone's paying attention to me'
    • personal fable: "i'm going to change the world'
    • invincibility fable: "nothing can hurt me!'
  21. What is the “sunk cost” fallacy?
    i might as well keep doing this bc i'm already miserable. especially when money is involved.
  22. Be familiar with the concepts related to identity status (identity achievement & alternate statuses—p434)
    • achievement: clear, self-chosen goals. 
    • moratorium: info gathering, delay, healthy, adaptive!
    • foreclosure: same identity (ready-made by authority figure) 
    • diffusion: no clear direction, no desire for it, no exploration
  23. Be familiar with the section on cultural differences (p. 438)
  24. Be familiar with the section on Sadness and Anger (p449-452)
    • clinical depression: feeling of hopelessness, lethargy, and worthlessness that last two weeks or more. 
    • rumination: repeatedly thinking and talking about past experiences, can contribute to depression. 
    • suicidal ideation: thinking about suicide, usually with some serious emotional and intellectual or cognitive overtones.
  25. Know major issues related to suicide discussed in class, parasucide (p.450), know point of caption on p. 451 about native American suicide risk.
    • parasuicide: any potentially lethal action against the self that does not result in death. 
    • the suicide rate among native american teenagers is more than three times as high as the rate for u.s. adolescents overall. 
    • 65 and older caucasian males: highest rate of suicide
  26. What is senescence? Describe changes that take place in early adulthood.
    • senescence: gradual physical decline related to aging.
    • not uniform, collagen decreases 1%/yr, hair turns grey, falls out. 
    • metabolism slows down
  27. What is organ reserve?
    the capacity of organs to allow the body to cope with stress, via extra, unused functioning ability.
  28. What is the relationship between age and infertility?
    as age increases so does infertility.
  29. What is IVF? (describe)
    IVF: the process by which eggs are removed from your ovaries and mixed with sperm in a laboratory culture dish. Fertilisation takes place in this dish
  30. Describe schizophrenia
    • hallucinations: visual, auditory (most common)
    • delusions: paranoid, grandiose. 
    • distorted thinking
    • disorganized behavior/speech (derailment/incoherence/disheveled)
    • flat affect, avolition (lack of motivation), hygiene
    • prodromal period
  31. Describe Perry’s and Labouvie-Vief’s theories about cognitive styles in early adulthood (just generally, you don’t have to know the table on p 509).
    • hypothetical to pragmatic (gap: b/w ideal real)
    • accept inconsistencies
  32. What is dialectical thought? (understand terms & definition)
    • thesis (idea) and antithesis (opposite idea) 
    • consider both at the same time.
  33. What is stereotype threat?
    a situational predicament in which people are or feel themselves to be at risk of confirming negative stereotypes about their social group.
  34. What is delay discounting?
    the tendency to undervalue, or downright ignore, future consequences and rewards in favor of more immediate gratification.
  35. Discuss Erikson’s intimacy versus isolation as it applies to early adulthood
    • cooperative, tolerant. 
    • search for intimacy friendships, romantic relationships. 
    • as opposed to never getting close to people or going from one relationship to the next without reaching a level of intimacy.
  36. What is the social clock?
    expectations by age
  37. Understand major concepts from Dr. Jay’s TED talk
    30 IS NOT THE NEW 20
  38. What 3 elements make up Sternberg’s triangular theory of love? (know about these & combinations)
    intimacy, passion, & commitment.
  39. What trends do we see in marriage in the U.S. (age of first marriage)?
    • delaying: male 27, female 26
    • still, most people marry
  40. What is homogamy? Heterogamy?
    • Homogamy: marriage between individuals who have important similarities to one another. In broad terms these similarities can be ethnic, cultural, geographical, religious, etc.
    • Heterogamy: marriage between two individuals that differ in a certain criterion
  41. Be familiar with the section on Mood Disorders in emerging adulthood.
    • bipolar disorder
    • depression
    • anxiety disorders
    • schizophrenia
  42. Why are most new employees fired? (employee factors)
    • absenteeism 
    • attitude
    • failure to adapt to work environment
  43. What are the gateways to attraction?
    the various qualities, such as appearance and proximity that are prerequisites for the formation of close friendships and intimate relationships. (physical attractiveness, apparent availability, frequent exposure, and absence of exclusion criteria.
  44. Be familiar with hearing loss that occurs in middle adulthood. What is presbycusis?
    • losses occur in hearing. 
    • gradual hearing loss.
    • presbycusis: a significant loss of hearing associated with senescence.
  45. Menopause? (be familiar with this section in your text)
    • gradual process (10 yr) of decreased estrogen production
    • ovulation and menstruation stop
    • avg age 51 (42-58)
    • smokers and childless are earlier
    • hot flashes
    • decrease in bone mass
  46. What is HRT?
    • hormone replacement therapy
    • treatment for menopause
  47. What is mortality? What is morbidity?
    • mortality: death
    • morbidity: disease
  48. What is fluid intelligence? Crystallized intelligence? What happens to each as we age?
    • fluid intelligence: info processing skills
    • crystallized intelligence: accumulated knowledge, vocabulary.
  49. What is expert cognition? (know the 4 elements in the text that comprise expert cognition—see p594-7)
    • expert cognition: everyone develops expertise. 
    • intuitive, automatic, strategic, flexible.
  50. What is gender convergence?
    gender role fluidity.
  51. Is the “midlife crisis” a common experience? Is there research support? Be familiar with the “Thinking Critically” section on this topic
    • it is not common.
    • there is no research support
  52. List Levinson’s four developmental tasks of middle adulthood
    • young-old
    • destruction-creation
    • masculinity-femininity 
    • engagement-separateness
  53. Describe what is meant by the term “sandwich generation”
    children who have to take care of their elderly parents while at the same time caring for their own children.
  54. Be familiar with these terms: social convoy, kinkeeper
    • social convoy: the network of close relationships we maintain throughout life
    • kinkeeper: promoting and protecting relationships between family members and the social role usually assumed by women.
  55. Discuss the intrinsic/extrinsic rewards of work
    • intrinsic: internal
    • extrinsic: money, perks.
  56. What is burnout? (and its consequences)
    • burnout: physical or mental collapse caused by overwork or stress.
    • consequences: absenteeism, turnover, poor performance, impaired health.
  57. Discuss generativity versus stagnation as it relates to middle adulthood
    • job security increases
    • middle aged workers make fewer job changes
    • know the job, expertise, salary, respected/promoted
    • difficulties in transitioning to new job
  58. What happens to job satisfaction in middle adulthood?
  59. Be able to answer the questions at the beginning of Chapter 23 (pgs 639 & 640)—they make us think about our assumptions about the elderly...
  60. Cataracts
    • cloudy are on lens
    • 30% of 70 y/o's
    • 1/2 @ 80 y/o
    • risk: uv radiation, diabetes, fam hx
  61. Glaucoma
    • pressure, increased fluid in eye
    • damaged optic nerve
    • loss of peripheral vision or blindness
    • increased risk: age (1% @ 70, 10% @ 90)
    • race (african american over 40 %, mexican american over 60%)
    • fam hx
  62. Macular degeneration
    • deterioration of retina
    • macula-central portion
    • break down of light sensitive cells
    • leading cause of blindness in aged
    • early laser tx for some types
    • risk: age, caucasian, smoking, HBP, genes
  63. Define dementia
    • a chronic or persistent disorder of the mental processes caused by brain disease or injury and marked by memory disorders, personality changes, and impaired reasoning.
    • severe cognitive impairments
  64. What is Alzheimer’s Disease?  What structural changes are noted in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s Disease?
    • most common type of dementia
    • plaques (amyloid proteins) 
    • tangles
  65. What are some risk factors for Alzheimer’s Disease?
    • AGE
    • genetics
    • head injury
  66. Be familiar with the 5 progressive stages of Alzheimer’s Disease.
    • stage 1: ppl forget recent events or newly acquired info
    • stage 2: generalized confusion develops
    • stage 3: memory loss becomes dangerous
    • stage 4: full-time care is needed
    • stage 5: ppl become unresponsive
  67. What is a delirium? How is it different from dementia?
    • (brain attack) 
    • disturbance of consciousness and cognition
    • short development (reversible) 
    • UTI
    • substance or toxin or vitamin deficiency
  68. What is pseudodementia?
    • depression
    • concentration/attention impairments, disrupt memory
  69. What is a stroke? (in your text also)
  70. *Remember the major method of treatment for stroke paralysis featured in the video clip in class
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growth & development FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
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