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  1. nutrition
    the process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth.
  2. malnutrition
    lack of proper nutrition, caused by not having enough to eat, not eating enough of the right things, or being unable to use the food that one does eat.
  3. marasmus
    severe undernourishment causing an infant's or child's weight to be significantly low for their age (e.g., below 60 percent of normal).
  4. kwashiorkor
    a form of malnutrition caused by protein deficiency in the diet, typically affecting young children in the tropics.
  5. BMR, basal metabolic rate.
    The rate at which energy is used by an organism at complete rest, measured in humans by the heat given off per unit time, and expressed as the calories released per kilogram of body weight or per square meter of body surface per hour.
  6. Thermoregulation
    is the process that allows the human body to maintain its core internal temperature. The state of having an even internal temperature is called homeostasis.
  7. kidney
    an organ functioning in the regulation of plasma composition, including the excretion of wastes and the maintenance of normal fluid and electrolyte balance.
  8. ureters
    muscular tubes, lined by transitional epithelium, that carry urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder.
  9. urinary bladder
    the muscular, distensible sac that stores urine prior to micturition (urinating).
  10. urethra
    a muscular tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the exterior.
  11. glomerular filtration
    The fluid in the lumen of the Bowman's capsule of the nephron that has been filtered from the capillaries of the glomerulus (see ultrafiltration). The glomerular filtrate has the same composition as the plasma except that it does not contain any of the LARGER components, such as plasma proteins or cells.
  12. tubular reabsorption
    allows the body to reclaim any needed materials from the kidneys after glomerular filtration. Glomerular filtration is the process of forcing water, salts, urea and glucose from the blood through a membrane via pressure. Most of the materials filtered by the kidneys are returned to the blood, depending on the body's needs.
  13. tubular secretion
    Some substances not needed by the body are removed from the blood and discharged into the urine
  14. nephron
    each of the functional units in the kidney, consisting of a glomerulus and its associated tubule,
  15. renal lobe
    The renal lobe is a portion of a kidney consisting of a renal pyramid and the renal cortex above it.
  16. nephrolithiasis
    The process of forming a kidney stone, a stone in the kidney
  17. micturation
  18. incontinence
    you can't help but pee your pants.
  19. polyuria
    production of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine.
  20. anuria
    failure of the kidneys to produce urine.
  21. filtration of solutes and water
    Renal corpuscle
  22. reabsorption of salt and secretion of K+,
    Ascending limb of nephron loop
  23. countercurrent multiplier
    Loop of Henle
  24. countercurrent exchange system
    vasa recta
  25. temporary storage of urine
    urinary bladder
  26. urine formation
  27. pH
    a number between 0 and 14 that indicates if a chemical is an acid or a base
  28. acids
    lower pH, a solution that has more free hydrogen ions (H + ) than hydroxyl ions (OH - ) and a pH less than 7.
  29. bases
    raise pH, a solution that has less free hydrogen ions (H + ) than hydroxyl ions (OH - ) and a pH of more than 7.
  30. Buffer
    resist changes in pH; bicarbonate, phosphate and protein systems.
  31. respiratory acidosis
    Cause is hypoventilation, Results to increase CO2, Acute respiratory, acidosis is life –threatening, Chronic respiratory acidosis (emphysema, CHF, pneumonia)
  32. respiratpry alkalosis
    Cause is hyperventilation , Results to decrease CO2 , Symptoms involve tingling sensations, light-headedness, loss consciousness
  33. metabolic acidosis
    high production of organic acids (lactic acid, ketones seen in alcoholism, diabetes), ingestion of acidic drugs (aspirin), loss of base (chronic diarrhea, laxative overuse)
  34. metabolic alkalosis
    (rare), overuse of bicarbonates (antacids), loss of acid (chronic vomiting)
  35. spermatogenesis
    the production or development of mature spermatozoa.
  36. dartos muscle
    smooth muscle fibers interspersed within the dartos fascia (superficial fascia of scrotum), causing contraction of the scrotum, as when experiencing a cool environmental temperature.
  37. cremasteric muscle
    thin muscle that covers the testes. Its main function is to lower and raise the scrotum, which helps to control the temperature of the testicles and avoids overheating.
  38. vasectomy
    the surgical cutting and sealing of part of each vas deferens, typically as a means of sterilization.
  39. spermiogenesis
    the final stage of spermatogenesis, which sees the maturation of spermatids into mature, motile spermatozoa. The spermatid is more or less circular cell containing a nucleus, Golgi apparatus, centriole and mitochondria
  40. ejaculatory duct
    A canal in the male formed by union of the vas deferens and the duct from the seminal vesicle. The ejaculatory duct passes through the prostate. Semen passes through them at the time of ejaculation.
  41. inguinale hernia
    protrusion of visceral tissues into inguinal canal.
  42. cryptorchidism
    A condition in which one or both of the testes fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum.
  43. sertoli cell
    its main function is to nourish the developing sperm cells through the stages of spermatogenesis,
  44. testosterone
    In men, testosterone plays a key role in the development of male reproductive tissues such as the testis and prostate as well as promoting secondary sexual characteristics such as increased muscle, bone mass, and the growth of body hair.
  45. testes
    The primary functions of the testes are to produce sperm (spermatogenesis) and to produce androgens, primarily testosterone.
  46. epididymis
    temporary storage of sperm cells.
  47. seminal vesicle
    secrete a significant proportion of the fluid that ultimately becomes semen
  48. prostate gland
    Secretion 20-30% of semenal fluid, milky secretion, enzymes - acidphosphodase
  49. ovulation
    monthly release of a mature egg from an ovary.
  50. oogenesis
    the production or development of an ovum.
  51. fertilization
    the action or process of fertilizing an egg, female animal, involving the fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote.
  52. implantation
    the attachment of the fertilized egg or blastocyst to the wall of the uterus at the start of pregnancy, often delayed in some mammals by several months.
  53. ovarian cycle
    the normal sex cycle that includes development of an ovarian (graafian) follicle, rupture of the follicle with discharge of the ovum, and formation and regression of a corpus luteum.
  54. climacterium
    the bodily and psychic changes accompanying the transition from middle life to old age; specifically : menopause and the bodily and mental changes that accompany it.
  55. menopause
    the ceasing of menstruation. the period in a woman's life (typically between 45 and 50 years of age) when this occurs.
  56. secondary oocyte
    An oocyte in which the first meiotic division is completed. The second meiotic division usually stops short of completion unless fertilization occurs.
  57. broad ligament
    is the wide fold of peritoneum that connects the sides of the uterus to the walls and floor of the pelvis.
  58. amenorrhea
    an abnormal absence of menstruation.
  59. vestibule
    a part of the vulva between the labia minora into which the urethral opening and the vaginal opening open.
  60. suspensory ligament
    attached to pelvic wall
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