Ch 20

  1. Upper Human Digestive System
    • Parotid (salivary) gland
    • Pharynx
    • Oral cavity
    • Tongue
    • teeth
    • esophagus
  2. Lower human digestive system
    • liver
    • gallbladder
    • duodenum
    • pancreas
    • rectum
    • stomach
    • small intestine
    • large intestine
    • anus
  3. Microbiota of the digestive system
    Image Upload 1
  4. The digestive system is composed of two separate categories of organs
    • gastrointestinal (GI) tract
    • accessory digestive organs
  5. how many bacteria per ml of saliva
    millions of bacteria per ml of saliva
  6. where are large number of bacteria located?
    in the large intestine
  7. how many bacteria per gram of feces
    100 billion bacteria per gram of feces
  8. three types of infection/ toxication
    • infection
    • infection followed by intoxication
    • just intoxication (due to ingestion of toxin)
  9. Dental caries (tooth decay) result from
    • plaque building
    • dietary carbohydrates
    • acidogenic bacteria
  10. A major cause of caries is
    Streptococcus mutans
  11. what does Streptococcus do
    they ferment dietary carbohydrates into acid
  12. What can prevent dental caries
    fluoride and diet
  13. Stages of tooth decays
    • Healthy tooth with plaque
    • decay in enamel
    • advanced decay
    • dean in dentin
    • decay in pulp
  14. Periodontal disease (fusospirochetal disease) results from
    inflammation of periodontal tissue
  15. poor hygiene leads to
    increased subgingival  plaque, which can be populated by bacteria
  16. poor hygiene care characterized by
    • ulcers and bleeding along the gingival margin
    • degradation of periodontal ligaments and bones
    • loosened or lost teeth
  17. Stages of periodontal diseases
    • healthy gingivae
    • gingivitis
    • periodontal pockets
    • periodontitis
  18. Mumps is a _______ infection affecting _______ glands
    viral, parotid (salivary)
  19. Mumps spread easily from person to person through
    infected saliva
  20. Alternative name for mumps
    infectious parotitis
  21. Mumps characterized by
    enlarged jaw tissues caused by swollen salivary glands
  22. Infection
    growth of pathogen
  23. incubation period for infection
    from 12 hours to 2 weeks
  24. symptoms for infection
  25. Intoxication
    ingestion of toxin
  26. ingestion symptoms
    • appears 1 to 48 hours after ingestion
    • pass through feel better couple days later
  27. gastroenteritis
    • diarrhea
    • dysentery- severe diarrhea, fluid loss, dehydration, lose electrolytes
  28. Bacterial diseases of the GI tract treatment (infection, intoxication, gastroenteritis)
    oral rehydration therapy
  29. meat can be infected during
    improper manslaughter procedure
  30. Fruits and vegetable can be contaminated by
    washing with contaminated water
  31. infected humans can contaminate food they handle through
    fecal oral route
  32. cross contamination between food can occur
    • between foods
    • via knife, cutting board, etc
  33. Water contamination can occur by
    defecation of infected individuals in public water source
  34. Improperly stored food can contain
    large numbers of pathogens because of rapid multiplication
  35. Intoxication: Staphylococcus aureus causes
    staphylococcal food poisoning
  36. Staphylococcus aureus
    occurs in gastrointestinal therefore enterotoxin
  37. Staphylococcus aureus toxins are often consumer in
    protein richer foods such as meant fish air products
  38. Staphylococcus aureus type of toxin
  39. Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin causes
    gastroenteritis for several hours
  40. Food is often contaminated by
    • boils pr abscess on a handlers skin
    • through skin
  41. what can decrease the risk of contamination
    • proper handling
    • refrigeration
    • heating
  42. Staphylococcal Food poisoning pathogen
    Staphylococcus aureus
  43. Staphylococcal Food poisoning symptoms
    • nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
    • vomiting- pathogen leaving
  44. Staphylococcal Food poisoning intoxication/infection
    • intoxication- Enterotoxin 
    • (super antigen)
  45. Staphylococcal Food poisoning diagnosis
    phage typing
  46. Staphylococcal Food poisoning treatment
  47. Events in Staph food poisoning
    • 1. Food containing protein is cooked (bacteria usually killed)
    • 2. Then food is contaminated by worker with staph on hands (competing bacteria have been eliminated)
    • 3. Food is left in room temperature. Organisms incubate in food (temp abuse) long enough to form and release toxins. (reheating will eliminate staph but not the toxins) 
    • 4. Food containing toxin is consumed
    • 5. In 1-6 hours staph intoxication occurs
  48. Intoxication of Bacillus cereus causes
    diarrhea and vomiting
  49. infections of bacillus cereus occur from
    eating contaminated cooked grains (bacteria found in soil so still might be in grains)
  50. C. perfringens symptoms
  51. C. perfringens intoxication or infection?
    Infection followed by exotoxin
  52. C. perfringens diagnosis
    isolation of bacteria
  53. C. perfringens source of infection
  54. C. difficile symptoms
    diarrhea to colitis
  55. C. difficile intoxication or infection?
    infection followed by exotoxin
  56. C. difficile diagnosis
    cytotoxin assay
  57. C. difficile source of infection
    eliminate of normal microbiota
  58. B. cereus symptoms
    nauseas, and vomiting. diarrhea
  59. B. cereus intoxication or infection
  60. B. cereus diagnosis
    isolation of bacteria
  61. B. cereus source of intoxication
    rice dishes
  62. Bacterial GI infection have ______ incubation period than intoxications
  63. Bacterial GI infections have longer incubation periods than intoxication because
    bacterial cells must establish themselves in the body after ingestion
  64. bacterial gastroenteritis often produces an
    inflammatory condition
  65. What is a common but serious complication of gastroenteritis
  66. Cholera is caused by
    Vibrio Cholera
  67. Cholera can involve
    enormous fluid loss
  68. V. cholera caused by consuming
    raw oysters and water
  69. Cells of cholera are susceptible to
    stomach acid
  70. Cholera large ______ _______ dose is needed to colonize the intestines
    large infectious
  71. E. coli can cause
  72. E. coli is normally found in the
    intestine, but certain serotypes are pathogenic
  73. Pathogenic e. coli attach to
    intestinal cells
  74. Pathogenic e. coli produce
  75. Pathogenic e. coli may
  76. STEC
    Shiga-toxin producing E. coli
  77. STEC symptoms
    • shigella like dysentery, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome
    • strain with Shiga
    • bloody diarrhea
    • RBS destroyed
    • kidney failure
  78. STEC intoxication or infection?
    infection shiga exotoxin
  79. STEC diagnosis
    isolation of bacteria
  80. STEC treatment
    quinolone, cephalosporins
  81. Shigellosis (bacillary dysentery) pathogen
    shigella spp
  82. Shigellosis symptoms
    • tissue damage, dysentery 
    • cell lyse, pus in stool
  83. Shigellosis intoxication or infection
    • infection
    • endotoxin and shiga exotoxin
  84. Shigellosis diagnosis
    isolation of bacteria
  85. Shigellosis treatment
  86. Shigellosis transmission
    fecal oral ingestion
  87. Salkonellosis
    • food contaminated
    • spread by animals found in soil
    • turtles carry
  88. Typhoid fever caused by
    Salmonella typhi
  89. Typhoid fever bacteria spread
    throughout entire body in phagocytes
  90. 1-3% of recovered patients of typhoid fever become
    chronic carriers
  91. Salmonellosis pathogen
    Salmonella enterica
  92. Salmonellosis intoxication or infection
    • infection 
    • endotoxin
  93. Salmonellosis diagnosis
    isolation of bacteria, serotyping
  94. Salmonellosis treatment
    oral rehydration
  95. Typhoid fever pathogen
    s. typhi
  96. Typhoid fever symptoms
    high fever, significant mortality
  97. Typhoid fever intoxication or infection
    • infection 
    • endotoxin
  98. Typhoid fever diagnosis
    isolation of bacteria, serotyping
  99. Typhoid fever treatment
    • quinolones
    • cephalosporins
  100. involved in gastric ulcers
    helicobacter pylori
  101. Helicobacter can be spread
    person to person
  102. Helicobacter produces
    urease, which in turn produces ammonia
  103. What does helicobacter do in the stomach
    neautralizes acid, allowing bacteria to survive
  104. Barry Marshall found
    ulcers in stomach not stress or everyday life, from bacteria in nature
  105. Protozoa disease
    Giardia lamblia
  106. giardia lamblia most common
    flagellate isolated in clinical specimens
  107. trophozoites and cyst escape in
  108. cyst play greater role in
  109. Giadia cyst can survive for
    2 months in the environment
  110. Cyst transmission:
    when ingested with food
  111. infectious dose of cyst
    10-100 cysts
  112. Prevention of Gardia lambda (cyst)
    avoid drinking fresh water sources is the major preventative measure
  113. Giardia symptoms
    • diarrhea long duration
    • abnormal pain
    • flatulence
    • stools have greasy malodorous quality to them
    • fever is usually not present
  114. Entamoeba histolytica
    one of the most significant pathogenic amoebas
  115. life cycle of Entamoeba histolytica
    alternate between a large trophozoite and a smaller nonmotile cyst
  116. Entamoeba histolytica secretes
  117. Entamoeba histolytica amoeba secretes enzyme that
    dissolves tissues, actively penetrating deeper layers of the mucosa, leaving ulcerations
  118. Entamoeba histolytica symptoms
    dysentery, abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea, and weight loss
  119. Entamoeba histolytica life threatening manifestation include
    • hemorrhage
    • perforation
    • appendicitis 
    • tumor like growths= amoebomas
  120. Helminthic disease primary symptoms
    intestinal distress
  121. worms that infects intestinal tract and cause primary symptoms there
    tapeworms and roundworms
  122. Nematode genus, species
    Enterobius vermicularis
  123. Nematode worm
    • pinworms
    • human only reservoir- eggs
  124. tapeworm genus, species
    Tania solium
  125. Viral gastereonteritis pathogens
    • Rotavirus
    • norovirus
  126. Rotavirus symptoms
    vomiting, diarrhea for 1 week
  127. Rotavirus incubation
    1-3 days
  128. Rotavirus treatment
    oral rehydration
  129. Norovirus symptoms
    vomiting, diarrhea for 2-3 days
  130. Norovirus incubation
    12-48 hours
  131. Norovirus treatment
    oral rehydration
  132. Hepatitis
    inflammation of the liver
  133. Hepatitis may result from
    drug or chemical toxicity, EB virus, CMV, hepatitis virus
  134. Hepatitis A transmission
    fecal oral
  135. Hepatitis B transmission
    parenteral, STI
  136. Hepatitis C transmission
  137. Hepatitis D transmission
    parenteral, HBV coinfection
  138. Hepatitis E transmission
    fecal oral
  139. Hepatitis A and E
    no chronic liver inflammation from contaminated food
  140. Mycotoxin intoxication
    fungal toxins
  141. Ergot poisoning pathogen
    claviceps purpurea
  142. Ergot poisoning symptoms
    reduced blood to limbs
  143. Ergot poisoning intoxication or infection
    mycotoxin in grain
  144. Ergot poisoning diagnosis
    sclerotia in food
  145. Ergot poisoning treatment
  146. Aflatoxin poisoning pathogen
    aspergillum flavus
  147. Aflatoxin poisoning symptoms
    liver cirrhosis, liver cancer
  148. Aflatoxin poisoning intoxication or infection
    mycotoxin in food
  149. Aflatoxin poisoning diagnosis
    immunoassay for toxin in food
  150. Aflatoxin treatment
Card Set
Ch 20
Unit 5 Micro