Nutrition Midterm

  1. Ergogenic
    Defined as a means to increase potential for work output
  2. Classes of ergogenic aids
    –Mechanical aids

    –Psychological aids

    –Physiological aids

    –Pharmacological aids

    –Nutritional aids
  3. What is nutritional quackery?

    –Promotion of worthless product

    • Glitzy brochures;
    • Infomercials
  4. types of carbs
    simple: sugars/gulcose

    • complex: (long chains of sugars/glucose)
    • starch: digested
    • fiber: not digested
  5. how many cal/gram for carbs
    4 cal/gram
  6. what % of daily diet is carbs
  7. Scientific name of fats/lipids and what are they
    triglycerides: 3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol
  8. What % of daily diet is fat
  9. how many cal/gram in fat
    9 cal/gram
  10. What are carbs used for
    source of fuel/energy
  11. what are fats used for
    stored energy, fuel source, insulation, padding of organs
  12. Protein and the types
    amino acids (building blocks of proteins total of 20)

    essential: can only be obtained through eating

    nonessential:  the body can produce these amino acids
  13. what % of daily diet is protein
  14. protein cal/gram
    4 cal/gram
  15. What are the six nutrients?
    • carbs
    • fats
    • proteins
    • vitamins
    • minerals
    • water
  16. Macronutrients



  17. •Six food exchanges

    –Meat and meat substitutes




  18. What is the concept of nutrient density
    • Foods that contain a significant amount of a specific nutrient compared to its
    • caloric content have a high nutrient density
  19. Vegan
    –No animal products at all
  20. Ovovegetarian
    –Eats eggs
  21. •Lactovegetarian
    –Eats dairy products
  22. •Ovolactovegetarian
    –Eats eggs and dairy products
  23. •Pescovegetarian
    –Eats fish
  24. What are some of the nutritional concerns with a vegetarian diet?
    • –Inadequate Calories
    • –B12 not found in natural plant foods
    • –Diets may be low in iron, calcium and zinc
    • –Grains low in lysine; legumes low in methionine (proteins)
  25. What are dietary supplements
    • is a food product,
    • added to the total diet, that contains at least one of the following
    • ingredients.



    –Herb or botanical

    –Amino acid




    • Combination of any of
    • these ingredients
  26. What should I eat during competition
    • In most sports, only fluids and carbohydrates may be
    • necessary
  27. What should I eat after competition
    • •In general, a balanced diet will meet nutritional needs
    • of most athletes.

    • •Carbohydrate and fluids may be important, particularly
    • for competition on the same or following day.
  28. What are the different types of Lipids


  29. What are Triglycerides
    3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol
  30. types of fatty acids
    • saturated fats = bad (trans fats even worse)
    • polyunsaturated fats = ok
    • monounsaturated fats = good
  31. saturated fat examples
    • coconut oil
    • butter
    • meats and lard
    • palm oil
  32. monounsaturated fat examples
    • olive oil
    • canola oil
    • peanut oil
    • soybean oil
  33. polyunsaturated fat examples
    • safflower oil
    • sunflower oil
    • corn oil
  34. trans fat examples
    • tub margarine
    • stick margarine
    • shortening
  35. What is Cholesterol
    •Cholesterol is not a fat, but a sterol

    • •Cholesterol is not an essential nutrient, essential
    • meaning necessary in the diet

    •Cholesterol can be manufactured in the liver

    •All animal foods contain cholesterol
  36. What are Phospholipids
    •Comparable to triglycerides with a phosphate group and choline
  37. What
    foods contain phospholipids
    • •Found in fat-rich foods like eggs, liver, wheat germ,
    • peanuts

    •Not an essential nutrient

    •Your body can make all the phospholipids it needs
  38. recommended Saturated
    fatty acids and trans
    fatty acids intake
    maximum of 7-10% of caloric intake
  39. recommended Cholesterol intake
    –300 mg daily, or 100 mg/1,000 Calories eaten
  40. Possible problems with
    excessive dietary fat

    –May be linked to heart disease

    –May be linked to obesity


    –May displace carbohydrates in the diet

    –May lead to excess caloric intake and weight gain

    • –May cause gastrointestinal distress as part of a pregame
    • meal
  41. What are the different types of lipoproteins?
    •Low-density lipoproteins (lethal) 

    –Mainly cholesterol; delivers cholesterol to cells

    • –Small dense LDL of health concern
    • •High-density lipoproteins (healthy)

    –Mainly protein; delivers cholesterol from cells to liver
  42. Fat use during exercise
    •Mild exercise @ 25% VO2max

    • –About 80% of energy comes from fat and 20% from
    • carbohydrate

    •More intense exercise up to 65% VO2max

    –Muscle triglycerides become increasingly important

    •High-intensity exercise ≥  85% VO2max

    –Carbohydrate is more important and fat use drops to

    •     ≤ 25% as muscle glycogen becomes the main
    • source
  43. •Chronic diseases associated with excess dietary fat
    –Coronary heart disease



    •High blood pressure
  44. one of the most important nutrients
  45. What are the different types of dietary carbohydrate
    •Simple carbohydrates


    •Glucose, Galactose, Fructose


    •Maltose, Lactose, Sucrose

    •Complex carbohydrates

      - Starch

      - Fiber
  46. •Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of carbs
    130 grams
  47. Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) of carbs
    –45-65% of energy intake
  48. •Daily Value (DV) of carbs
    –60% of daily energy needs

    –300 grams on a 2,000 Calorie diet

    –25 grams of fiber
  49. Where does glucose go once absorbed
    •May be used for energy

    •May be converted to liver or muscle glycogen

    •May be converted to and stored as fat in adipose tissues

    •May be excreted in the urine if in excess
  50. what is Glycogen, where is it stored, and when is it used
    •Storage form of carbs

    •Stored in the liver and muscles

    •Used during:


    –Between meals

    –During exercise
  51. In what type of activities does the body rely heavily on carbohydrate as an energy
    • Carbohydrate
    • contributes about 40% of energy needs at rest 

    •Carbohydrate is major source during

    –Very high intensity anaerobic exercise

    • –High intensity (>65% VO2max)
    • aerobic exercise

    –Prolonged aerobic exercise events

    –Intermittent high-intensity exercise sports
  52. Hypoglycemia
    blood sugar is low

    •Hormones help with this:


  53. Carbohydrate loading
    •Method of increasing muscle glycogen levels
Card Set
Nutrition Midterm
Nutrition Midterm