What is correctional rehab and does it work?
- Lipsey & Cullen (2007)
- Comprised of:
- Sanctions & supervisions: intensive supervision, increased sentence length
- Rehabilitation: programs focused on motivating and motivating pro-social and behavioural change
- When comparing recidivism rates to offenders given modest or harsher sanctions there is little difference in rates, with higher rates sometimes found for harsher ones
- The least of the mean reductions in recidivism for rehab were greater than the largest mean reductions for offenders receiving sanctions
What are bootcamps?
- First implemented in the US in 1983
- Generally require participants to follow strict regiments of daily exercise or routine similar to a military bootcamp
- Any misbehaviour or non-compliance results in immediate punishment, usually in the form of physical activity
- Some are not purely physical but also involve therapeutic elements such as educational training and skill development
Do bootcamps work?
- Sort of -Wilson Mackenzie & Mitchell 2008
- Meta analysis of bootcamps and their outcomes
- Juvenile camps were more effective than adult ones
- More militaristic camps were less effective
- Bootcamps offering other forms of treatment were more effective than those that did not
What are restorative measures?
- Wide range of procedures that encourage offenders to accept responsibility for the crimes they have committed and the damage they have done - Braithwaite (2002)
- Usually via communication with victims
- Reintegrative shaming: the process of being shamed by the victim reduces desire to reoffend (Braithwaite, 1989)
What are face to face restorative justice conferences?
- Brings victims, their families and offenders together to decide what they should do to help repair the damage they have done- Sherman & Strang et al (2012)
- Highly controlled and guided as to how best deal with them
- Strang et al (2013) investigated the effects on recidivism and victim impact of a number of RJCs over 1800 offenders and 730 interviewed victims
- Showed that they were effective in reducing recidivism in 9/10 cases
- 8 times cheaper than criminal justice alternatives
- General satisfaction found for victims
- BUT offender participation is optional and they could be faking their emotions to reduce prison time
Why do we use cognitive behavioural therapy?
- It is believed that criminals have distorted cognitions and thinking patterns
- This makes them respond criminally to ambiguous situations and justify their actions
What are the assumptions of cognitive behavioural approaches?
- Faulty 'criminal' cognition is not innate, it is learned
- This means it can be unlearned in ways that reduce the likelihood of them reoffending such as anger management therapy
- Aims to show offenders the thought processes that make them offend, teach them that they are responsible for their actions and embed pro-social behavioural responses
What are the steps of CBT?
- Self monitoring: teach them to look at their own behaviour and thought patterns and reinforce appropriate ones
- Imagery: use guided relaxation and covert desensitisation to combat problems such as anger
- Social skills training: equip them with the tools to deal with situations that might give rise to criminal responses, give them new models of behaviour to learn and get feedback from
- Self management: teach them to set personal goals, manage their lives and assess their own progress
Does CBA (lol) work?
- To some extent- Pearson et al (2002)
- 69 studies of token economy and CBT assessed
- CBT was more effective in reducing recidivism by 30%
- Yes- Wilson, Bouffard & Mackenzie (2005)
- Looked at 20 group based CBT programs
- Concluded it was highly effective in reducing recidivism by 20-30% in treatment groups as opposed to controls
- Yes- Lipsey, Landenberger & Wilson (2007)
- Mean recidivism reduction of 25% in treatment groups
- Better results when paired with interpersonal skills, anger management skills and adequate training of CBT practitioners
Which treatments work for sex offenders?
- Marshall (2006) details the effects of treatments on Bill, a 38 year old child sex offender
- Used olfactory aversion therapy (associate sexual arousal towards children with noxious stimuli)
- Also used directed masturbation towards pictures of adult women
- These were found to be effective in reducing Bill's undesirable behaviour
What are the criticisms of the what works movement?
- There is a gap between research and practice
- There is a publication bias with support coming from lab studies (Lab & Whitehead, 1990)
- These slides are a fucking joke, find proper criticisms elsewhere
What is the risk principle?
- Smith et al (2009)
- Offenders should be assessed using reliable and well established instruments designed to assess the risk of offending
- High risk offenders should receive the most intensive treatments
What is the need principle?
- Smith et al (2009)
- Criminogenic factors are either static (criminal history, genetic makeup etc) or dynamic (antisocial attitudes, substance abuse etc)
- Interventions should target the malleable dynamic factors
What is the responsivity principle?
- Smith et al (2009)
- General responsivity: evidence that programmes based on cognitive, behavioural and social learning principles are more effective should be followed
- Specific responsivity: as much as possible, interventions should be tailored to the needs and behaviour of the offender and the person delivering the treatment (don't pair a shy person with an abusive offender)