1. What is correctional rehab and does it work?
    • Lipsey & Cullen (2007)
    • Comprised of:
    • Sanctions & supervisions: intensive supervision, increased sentence length 
    • Rehabilitation: programs focused on motivating and motivating pro-social and behavioural change
    • When comparing recidivism rates to offenders given modest or harsher sanctions there is little difference in rates, with higher rates sometimes found for harsher ones 
    • The least of the mean reductions in recidivism for rehab were greater than the largest mean reductions for offenders receiving sanctions
  2. What are bootcamps?
    • First implemented in the US in 1983
    • Generally require participants to follow strict regiments of daily exercise or routine similar to a military bootcamp 
    • Any misbehaviour or non-compliance results in immediate punishment, usually in the form of physical activity 
    • Some are not purely physical but also involve therapeutic elements such as educational training and skill development
  3. Do bootcamps work?
    • Sort of -Wilson Mackenzie & Mitchell 2008
    • Meta analysis of bootcamps and their outcomes 
    • Juvenile camps were more effective than adult ones 
    • More militaristic camps were less effective 
    • Bootcamps offering other forms of treatment were more effective than those that did not
  4. What are restorative measures?
    • Wide range of procedures that encourage offenders to accept responsibility for the crimes they have committed and the damage they have done - Braithwaite (2002)
    • Usually via communication with victims 
    • Reintegrative shaming: the process of being shamed by the victim reduces desire to reoffend (Braithwaite, 1989)
  5. What are face to face restorative justice conferences?
    • Brings victims, their families and offenders together to decide what they should do to help repair the damage they have done- Sherman & Strang et al (2012)
    • Highly controlled and guided as to how best deal with them 
    • Strang et al (2013) investigated the effects on recidivism and victim impact of a number of RJCs over 1800 offenders and 730 interviewed victims
    • Showed that they were effective in reducing recidivism in 9/10 cases
    • 8 times cheaper than criminal justice alternatives
    • General satisfaction found for victims 
    • BUT offender participation is optional and they could be faking their emotions to reduce prison time
  6. Why do we use cognitive behavioural therapy?
    • It is believed that criminals have distorted cognitions and thinking patterns 
    • This makes them respond criminally to ambiguous situations and justify their actions
  7. What are the assumptions of cognitive behavioural approaches?
    • Faulty 'criminal' cognition is not innate, it is learned 
    • This means it can be unlearned in ways that reduce the likelihood of them reoffending such as anger management therapy
    • Aims to show offenders the thought processes that make them offend, teach them that they are responsible for their actions and embed pro-social behavioural responses
  8. What are the steps of CBT?
    • Self monitoring: teach them to look at their own behaviour and thought patterns and reinforce appropriate ones 
    • Imagery: use guided relaxation and covert desensitisation to combat problems such as anger
    • Social skills training: equip them with the tools to deal with situations that might give rise to criminal responses, give them new models of behaviour to learn and get feedback from 
    • Self management: teach them to set personal goals, manage their lives and assess their own progress
  9. Does CBA (lol) work?
    • To some extent- Pearson et al (2002)
    • 69 studies of token economy and CBT assessed 
    • CBT was more effective in reducing recidivism by 30%
    • Yes- Wilson, Bouffard & Mackenzie (2005)
    • Looked at 20 group based CBT programs 
    • Concluded it was highly effective in reducing recidivism by 20-30% in treatment groups as opposed to controls
    • Yes- Lipsey, Landenberger & Wilson (2007)
    • Mean recidivism reduction of 25% in treatment groups 
    • Better results when paired with interpersonal skills, anger management skills and adequate training of CBT practitioners
  10. Which treatments work for sex offenders?
    • Marshall (2006) details the effects of treatments on Bill, a 38 year old child sex offender 
    • Used olfactory aversion therapy (associate sexual arousal towards children with noxious stimuli)
    • Also used directed masturbation towards pictures of adult women
    • These were found to be effective in reducing Bill's undesirable behaviour
  11. What are the criticisms of the what works movement?
    • There is a gap between research and practice
    • There is a publication bias with support coming from lab studies (Lab & Whitehead, 1990)
    • These slides are a fucking joke, find proper criticisms elsewhere
  12. What is the risk principle?
    • Smith et al (2009)
    • Offenders should be assessed using reliable and well established instruments designed to assess the risk of offending 
    • High risk offenders should receive the most intensive treatments
  13. What is the need principle?
    • Smith et al (2009)
    • Criminogenic factors are either static (criminal history, genetic makeup etc) or dynamic (antisocial attitudes, substance abuse etc)
    • Interventions should target the malleable dynamic factors
  14. What is the responsivity principle?
    • Smith et al (2009)
    • General responsivity: evidence that programmes based on cognitive, behavioural and social learning principles are more effective should be followed 
    • Specific responsivity: as much as possible, interventions should be tailored to the needs and behaviour of the offender and the person delivering the treatment (don't pair a shy person with an abusive offender)
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