Test 2 Lecture 18

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  1. On the Foot into the Mound: Adena (1000-200 BC)
    • Adena cultural area covers modern day
    • Ohio, Indiana, New York, Kentucky, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Maryland.

    impressive earthworks

    characterized by burial mounds and earthworks

    • Represented by ca. 400 archaeological
    • sites, 200 of which are in the Ohio Valley.

    • While noted for their pottery and
    • development of agriculture, the Adena’s
    • symbolic and mortuary repertoire’s have garnered attention and are seen as the
    • precursor of Hopewell lies in ohio


    Shape-shifting - anthropomorphism

    Social Stratification - some have higher status
  2. anthropomorphic
    animals taking on human characteristics
  3. Adena Burial Mounds
    characteristic of Adena culture is investment in earthworks, especially funerary mounds.

    • mounds erected over temporary mortuary structures
    • body removed
    • structure burned
    • then body put on top
    • mound built over it

    • other people can go into mound
  4. Criel Mound (250-150 BC)
    located in South Charleston, West Virginia

    Excavated by Philetus W. Norris and Cyrus Thomas

    • 13 Skeletons in mound 
    • 2 near the top; 11 at base.

    • Main burial is of an older male with 10
    • individuals arranged in a spoke-like pattern around the primary burial.
  5. Grave Creek Mound
    Ohio River Valley, West Virginia.

    located on private land

    Excavated by amateurs Jesse Tomlinson and Thomas Briggs.

    • Tunnel revealed two burial vaults
    • one which served as the primary burial at 
    • the center of the mound. 

    • Finds included 1700 ivory beads and 500
    • sea-shell, and 5 copper bracelets

    built temporary museum for people to see

    today, museum near the site that contains the materials...continue antiquarian tradition
  6. The Mound Builders: Hopewell
    (ca. 200 BC-500 CE)
    Image Upload 1
    • impressive cultural phenomenon
    • adena is called precursor of hopewell
    • it may be a phenomenon of its own
    • defined by Warren King Moorehead
    • earthworks on completely different order
    • building effigy mounds in shapes of serpents, alignments with the moon
  7. hopewell interactive sphere
    • problematic term, but interactive sphere may be more accurate
    • not one culture, but interaction between several cultures

    • These are connected by trade between
    • elite leaders referred to as “big-men” and by the spread of similar symbolic and ritual repertoires.
  8. Effigy Pipes
    • characteristic of hopewell
    • depict animals
    • a part of symbolic repertoire
    • made of pipe stone from illinois
    • making with materials from far away
  9. interegional hopewell
    symbolic representations generally similar and shared among two or more Middle Woodland traditions across the mid-continent.
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Test 2 Lecture 18
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