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On the Foot into the Mound: Adena (1000-200 BC)
- Adena cultural area covers modern day
- Ohio, Indiana, New York, Kentucky, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Maryland.
characterized by burial mounds and earthworks
- Represented by ca. 400 archaeological
- sites, 200 of which are in the Ohio Valley.
- While noted for their pottery and
- development of agriculture, the Adena’s
- symbolic and mortuary repertoire’s have garnered attention and are seen as the
- precursor of Hopewell lies in ohio
Shape-shifting - anthropomorphism
Social Stratification - some have higher status
animals taking on human characteristics
Adena Burial Mounds
characteristic of Adena culture is investment in earthworks, especially funerary mounds.
- mounds erected over temporary mortuary structures
- body removed
- structure burned
- then body put on top
- mound built over it
other people can go into mound
Criel Mound (250-150 BC)
located in South Charleston, West Virginia
Excavated by Philetus W. Norris and Cyrus Thomas
- 13 Skeletons in mound
- 2 near the top; 11 at base.
- Main burial is of an older male with 10
- individuals arranged in a spoke-like pattern around the primary burial.
Grave Creek Mound
Ohio River Valley, West Virginia.
located on private land
Excavated by amateurs Jesse Tomlinson and Thomas Briggs.
- Tunnel revealed two burial vaults
- one which served as the primary burial at
- the center of the mound.
- Finds included 1700 ivory beads and 500
- sea-shell, and 5 copper bracelets
built temporary museum for people to see
today, museum near the site that contains the materials...continue antiquarian tradition
The Mound Builders: Hopewell
(ca. 200 BC-500 CE)
- impressive cultural phenomenon
- adena is called precursor of hopewell
- it may be a phenomenon of its own
- defined by Warren King Moorehead
- earthworks on completely different order
- building effigy mounds in shapes of serpents, alignments with the moon
hopewell interactive sphere
- problematic term, but interactive sphere may be more accurate
- not one culture, but interaction between several cultures
- These are connected by trade between
- elite leaders referred to as “big-men” and by the spread of similar symbolic and ritual repertoires.
- characteristic of hopewell
- depict animals
- a part of symbolic repertoire
- made of pipe stone from illinois
- making with materials from far away
symbolic representations generally similar and shared among two or more Middle Woodland traditions across the mid-continent.