Test 2 Lecture 15

  1. Basket maker III
    • significant population growth in the Four-Corners area (NW New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Utah) due to migration.
    • living in larger settlements
  2. Evolution of the Pit-house:
    Basket maker II
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    • simple structure
    • hole dug in ground
    • holes set up to support roof
    • put together by jacal
    • entrance in roof facing south
    • external storage features with hole in ground
  3. Evolution of the Pit-house:
    Basket maker IIIImage Upload 2
    • evolved into larger structure
    • wing walled
    • anti chamber
    • smoke holes on top
    • outside storage features
    • its the basketmaker II pithouse just larger
  4. Evolution of the Pit-house:
    Pueblo I pithouse
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    • same standard features with ritual features
    • depressions of holes in the ground found in hopi settlements
    • hopi have view of the world where ancestors come from the 3rd world into the 4th world called sipapu's
  5. Evolution of the Pit-house:
    pueblo II Kiva
    Image Upload 4
    • circular pithouse
    • built with more masonry to keep cool and warm during seasons
    • supports called pilasters that act as roof beams
    • more reinforced/refined
    • still has same elements of pithouses
    • semi or entirely subterranean
  6. Where We Gather:  The Great Kiva
    • one of the earliest examples of "public architecture“ in Southwest.  
    • large, circular, usually subterranean or semi-subterranean structure
    • used for communal  ceremonies and political gatherings.
    • distinguished from ordinary kivas by their large size (more than 100 square meters in area), distinctive floor features (such as foot drums), and artifacts(for example, large serving bowls) that reflect communal feasting
    • not for living in, but for congregating
    • they show up in intermediary points within a range of pithouses or kivas
  7. Chetro Ketl
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    • Great Kiva half mile east of Pueblo Bonito, New Mexico
    • ritual activities and meaning largely unknown today.
    • misinterpretation can result from terminology such as “Floor drum”, “Seating pits”, “Bench”
    • communal buildings for public
  8. Mesa Verde (600-1300 AD)
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    • national park in colorado
    • “discovered” several times by different groups
    • The Ute - new of mesa verde long before
    • the Spanish - never saw the ruins, but and John Moss (1873) - noted the ruins
    • William Henry Holmes (1875) - established that the area is significant for arch research
    • Virginia McClurg(1883) - had the area become protected under federal law
    • Richard Wetherill (1889) - applies terminology that implies ancetral connection to navajo and hopi and other native american groups in the area
    • Gustav Nordenskiöld (1891) - well educated, son of arctic explorer, got sent out on a world tour, had intentions to leave to Japan, but sent telegram to his father to stay in Mesa Verde, he explored with wetherill. Nordenskiold excavates Mesa Verde and sent back materials to sweden, but today its in Finland. people upset about this bc he wasnt even american and was shipping materials to foreign country. He was arrested, but didnt last long bc of his nobility. materials were not recoverable and now reside in national museum of finland. finland used to be occupied by sweden.
  9. Mesa Verde Characteristics
    • ☀cliff dwellings given romantic names - cliff palace not really a palace
    • ☀larger area of settlement clusters
    • ☀supported by impressive irrigation works
    • ☀People inhabited around 40 AD
    • and lived in dispersed villages with few scattered satellite settlements.
  10. Mesa Verde Pueblo I (750-900 AD)
    • ☀people still building pithouses
    • ☀people started living in larger communities with administrative centers and public store houses for redistribution.

    • ☀Houses were built above ground using mud
    • brick and jacal construction.

    • ☀end of Pueblo I - steep population decline in the Mesa Verde region
    • people move south to New Mexico and become incorporated with Chaco Canyon Phenomenon
  11. why depopulationin mesa verde?
    correlated with droughts in the region strained the resources
  12. Mesa Verde Pueblo II (900-1150 AD)
    Following the population decline at theend of Pueblo I, people began to repopulate Mesa Verde towards the middle of Pueblo II.

    consisted of small farmsteads loosely clustered around a larger "community center.“

    • emergence of Community centers exhibit large public buildings that could be used
    • for community-wide ceremonies and meetings; some may have also served as
    • storage facilities and distribution points for food and other goods to be shared by residents.
  13. Mesa Verde Pueblo III (1150-1300 AD)
    • demographic transformation where people
    • are moving away from local farmsteads and smaller villages and are moving into the community centers up in the cliffs
    • It is during this period that the majority of the impressive cliff-dwellings were constructed.

    • coincides with population boom that reverses as quickly as it began.
    • why?  What drove this demographic change and what reversed it? drought, escalation of violence, other pressures
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Test 2 Lecture 15