Menlo Phase (great basin archaic)
- term applied to Northeastern California
- difference in habitation sites
- evidence of larger permanent semisubterranean pithouses in valley sites (pit not as deep, structure above ground)
- suggesting substantial base camps
- temporary camp sites also found in various settings
Artifacts recovered from Menlo sites
- grinding stones
- mortars with conical depressions
- pointed pestles
- Northern Side-notched Points
- faunal remains: sheep, antelope, deer, and bison, indicates that large mammals were actively pursued.
Western Pluvial Lakes Tradition (in Menlo Phase)
- found in nevada, california, arizona
- each has regional name: Lake Mohave Complex, Death Valley I, Sadmat
- characterized by lunate discs or points
- serrated ends
- exact use unknown, one theory is used as darts to hunt birds
Fort Rock Cave- 8200 BC
- great basin early/middle archaic
- in Southern oregon
- preservation was very good
- sage brush moccasins were found
North American Southwest
- ☀comprises entire state of Arizona, the western parts of New Mexico, southwestern Colorado,
- southern parts of Utah and Nevada, and the Mexican states Sonora, Chihuahua, and Durango
- ☀arid environment, varied microclimate
- ☀Cold-air Drainage phenomenon: cold air gets trapped in canyons. different ecohabitat with cold air drainage has to do with how much sun is hitting it.
- ☀northern Southwest more wet and summer monsoon season in the south.
The Southwest Archaic
- distinguished by presence of grinding technology
- and reduction in size of projectile points.
Four regional Archaic traditions recognized in the Southwest
- Pinto – southern Nevada, California, and
- western and southern Arizona.
Oshara- Northern Southwest(Arizona, New Mexico)
Cochise – Southwestern Southwest (Mexico)
Chihuahua- Southeastern Southwest
***major cultural zones in the southwest archaic
SW archaic problematic
- most sites are ephemeral and surface sites
- (buried A horizon (processual arch)
- what brings artifacts underground is what happens on top)
- in desert and rock desert environments things dont happen this way, things just stay the same
- chronologcal resolution of the SW archaic is poor and so you are stuck having to date things by seriation and typology; poor radiometric dates
SW archaic foraging
- Broad-spectrum foraging, which exploits a wide variety of plant and animal foods, was the norm
- during the Southwest Archaic (as elsewhere).
- Plants exploited included ricegrass, dropseed,
- goosefoot, pigweed, hackberry, walnut, and prickly pear.
american SW lies very close to mesoamerica and so toward the end of the Archaic, people were beginning to experiment with maize, squash, and beans domesticating seasonal patches as people moved on their seasonal rounds
Where the Sun and Grass Collide: The North American Plains
- refers to people and places of both the tall-grass prairie and the short-grass high plains
- stretches from Saskatchewan River to the Rio Grande and...
- east from the foothills of the Rocky Mountains to the Upper Mississippi River.
- west to
- variable rainfall, warm summers, harsh winters
North American Plains:
runs from eastern border of texas panhandle
What is the east west phenomena in the plains
people in the eastern plains have varied subsistence base vs people in western plains who rely very heavily on hunting
The archaic of the plains
- Defining the beginning of the Archaic on the plains has proven difficult
- Paleoindian lifeways persists longer in this area than elsewhere, they arent adopting grinding technology
- Grinding technology does appear, but does so later and its distribution is rather“spotty” or granular.
- Instead,the Plains Archaic is defined primarily by the introduction of notched points and projectile technology such as darts or small arrows(based on lithics) and light spears.
- development of distance hunting
- The Atlatl - spear thrower made of bone to hunt large game at a distance.
- Atlatl Weights - used in conjunction with the spear to generate more momentum and accuracy (atlatl unique to the plains)
Medicine wheels (in the plains)
- midwest of the plains like in wyoming
- stone mound in the center with perimeter fence with little mounds
- with spokes radiating in the center
- dont know what it was used for
- it was a symbolic repertoire of the plains