From the innermost outward, what three layers are found in the walls of both arteries and veins?
B) tunica intima, tunica media, tunica externa
Which tunic contains circularly arranged layers of smooth muscle cells?
B) tunica media
The areolar connective tissue of the ____________ helps anchor the blood vessel to other structures.
C) tunica externa
The thickest layer of an artery wall is the tunica ____________, but veins have a thicker tunica ____________.
D) media; externa
Blood leaving the heart enters large, extremely resilient vessels called
C) elastic arteries
In contrast to other arteries, arterioles
B) are only 3 mm in diameter or smaller
A blood vessel with thin walls, a relatively wide lumen, numerous one-way valves, and a diameter greater than 100 micrometers is
A) a vein
Which vessels have thin walls and small diameters that facilitate rapid diffusion of gases and nutrients between blood and body tissues?
Valves in veins serve to
A) prevent backflow of blood in the absence of high blood pressure
Capillaries do not function independently, but rather form interconnected networks called
D) capillary beds
A ring of smooth muscle, the precapillary sphincter, encircles the entrance to each ____________.
C) true capillary
Which of the following selections is paired incorrectly?
B) continuous capillaries; found in intestinal villi and the kidneys
Gaps in their walls and relatively large lumens, along with basement membranes that are either discontinuous or absent, allow ____________ to transport materials as large as proteins or blood cells in and out of the blood very quickly.
The word root fenestra most nearly means
At rest, about 60% of the body’s blood is normally held by the
Compared with those of the systemic circulation, arteries of the pulmonary circulation
D) all of the above
What are the three main arterial branches that emerge from the aortic arch?
C) brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, and left subclavian artery
The internal carotid arteries do not
C) deliver blood to structures of the neck, pharynx, larynx, mandible, and face
What is the name of the anastomosis of arteries surrounding the sella turcica?
A) cerebral arterial circle
Which three arteries branch from the celiac trunk to supply digestive organs?
D) left gastric, splenic, and common hepatic
Which pair correctly matches an artery with the organ or region it serves?
B) obturator, medial thigh
Veins that drain the head, neck, and upper limbs ultimately merge to form the
A) superior vena cava
Which statement accurately describes the azygos vein?
B) receives blood from veins on both sides of the vertebrae
Which vein collects most of the blood from the lower limbs, pelvis, perineum, and abdominal structures?
D) inferior vena cava
The veins of the gastrointestinal tract all merge into some part of the ____________, which shunts the blood to the liver for absorption and processing of transported materials.
B) hepatic portal system
Which artery projects from the aortic arch, extending several branches that supply the thoracic wall before changing names inferior to the diaphragm?
A) descending thoracic aorta
In a fetus, most of the blood is shunted from the right to the left atrium through the
B) foramen ovale
Fetal blood is shunted from the pulmonary trunk to the aorta through which of the following?
B) ductus arteriosus
The word root varix, as used in “varicose,” appropriately translates as
B) dilated vein
Aging adults in the United States may expect which of the following changes in the cardiovascular system?
D) all of the above
Which structures are found only in arteries?
A) internal and external elastic laminae
In terms of both composition and relative position, the ____________ of the heart is most similar to the ____________ of vessel walls.
A) endocardium; tunica intima
Compared with larger arteries, smaller arteries tend to have less ____________ in their walls and more ____________.
D) elastic tissue; smooth muscle
Which type of true capillaries are enveloped, in certain locations, by the perivascular feet of astrocytes?
A) continuous capillaries
The cyclical contracting and relaxing of ____________ that alters blood flow through capillary beds about 5-10 times per minute is called ____________.
D) precapillary sphincters; vasomotion
Although both are performed by smooth muscle, ____________ raises blood pressure while ____________ primarily affects nutrient delivery.
A) vasoconstriction; vasomotion
Because, at rest, they hold about ____________ of the body's blood, ____________ function as blood reservoirs.
C) 60%; veins
All of the following are true of companion vessels except
B) a pair can consist of either arteries or veins, but not both
Diapedesis occurs mostly in which vessels?
C) postcapillary venules
TWhich structures are called the "functional units" of the cardiovascular system?
At any given moment, which cardiovascular components contain the most blood?
D) the systemic veins and venules
The ____________ are to the walls of large blood vessels as the coronary vessels are to the myocardium.
D) vasa vasorum
Which of the following carry oxygenated blood only? (1) systemic arteries (2) systemic veins (3) pulmonary arteries (4) pulmonary veins
D) 1 and 4
The aorta and its primary branches are all ____________ arteries, as is the pulmonary trunk.
Of the following arteries, which does not contribute directly to an anastomosis?
A) common carotid
An artery with an anastomosis so tiny as to be ineffectual is
D) a functional end artery
In which of the following vessels could blood most likely flow bidirectionally?
C) superior sagittal sinus
Upon leaving the capillaries supplied by the celiac and the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries, blood flows into the
B) hepatic portal system
Arrange the names given to successive portions of the vessel that continues from the brachiocephalic trunk to supply the right upper limb: (1) radial artery (2) axillary artery (3) brachial artery (4) subclavian artery
A) 4, 2, 3, 1
The following sequence lists veins carrying a drop of blood from the leg to the heart. Which vein is missing?posterior tibial > popliteal > femoral > common iliac > inferior vena cava
B) external iliac
In the fetus, oxygenated blood returning from the placenta is shunted away from the liver by the
C) ductus venosus
Which one of the following is not a postnatal circulatory change?
D) increased pressure within the right atrium opens the foramen ovale
At birth, the ____________ replaces the hole in the interatrial septum that has the same name as a hole in the sphenoid bone of the skull.
C) fossa ovalis
The ductus arteriosus closes at birth, leaving a fibrous remnant, the ligamentum
What vascular disorder is characterized by altered endothelia and the buildup of fatty plaques in arterial lumens?