Human Anatomy Chapter 23 Vessels and Circulation

  1. From the innermost outward, what three layers are found in the walls of both arteries and veins?




    B) tunica intima, tunica media, tunica externa
  2. Which tunic contains circularly arranged layers of smooth muscle cells?




    B) tunica media
  3. The areolar connective tissue of the ____________ helps anchor the blood vessel to other structures.




    C) tunica externa
  4. The thickest layer of an artery wall is the tunica ____________, but veins have a thicker tunica ____________.




    D) media; externa
  5. Blood leaving the heart enters large, extremely resilient vessels called




    C) elastic arteries
  6. In contrast to other arteries, arterioles




    B) are only 3 mm in diameter or smaller
  7. A blood vessel with thin walls, a relatively wide lumen, numerous one-way valves, and a diameter greater than 100 micrometers is




    A) a vein
  8. Which vessels have thin walls and small diameters that facilitate rapid diffusion of gases and nutrients between blood and body tissues?




    A) capillaries
  9. Valves in veins serve to




    A) prevent backflow of blood in the absence of high blood pressure
  10. Capillaries do not function independently, but rather form interconnected networks called




    D) capillary beds
  11. A ring of smooth muscle, the precapillary sphincter, encircles the entrance to each ____________.




    C) true capillary
  12. Which of the following selections is paired incorrectly?




    B) continuous capillaries; found in intestinal villi and the kidneys
  13. Gaps in their walls and relatively large lumens, along with basement membranes that are either discontinuous or absent, allow ____________ to transport materials as large as proteins or blood cells in and out of the blood very quickly.




    A) sinusoids
  14. The word root fenestra most nearly means




    C) window
  15. At rest, about 60% of the body’s blood is normally held by the




    A) veins
  16. Compared with those of the systemic circulation, arteries of the pulmonary circulation




    D) all of the above
  17. What are the three main arterial branches that emerge from the aortic arch?




    C) brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, and left subclavian artery
  18. The internal carotid arteries do not




    C) deliver blood to structures of the neck, pharynx, larynx, mandible, and face
  19. What is the name of the anastomosis of arteries surrounding the sella turcica?




    A) cerebral arterial circle
  20. Which three arteries branch from the celiac trunk to supply digestive organs?




    D) left gastric, splenic, and common hepatic
  21. Which pair correctly matches an artery with the organ or region it serves?




    B) obturator, medial thigh
  22. Veins that drain the head, neck, and upper limbs ultimately merge to form the




    A) superior vena cava
  23. Which statement accurately describes the azygos vein?




    B) receives blood from veins on both sides of the vertebrae
  24. Which vein collects most of the blood from the lower limbs, pelvis, perineum, and abdominal structures?




    D) inferior vena cava
  25. The veins of the gastrointestinal tract all merge into some part of the ____________, which shunts the blood to the liver for absorption and processing of transported materials.




    B) hepatic portal system
  26. Which artery projects from the aortic arch, extending several branches that supply the thoracic wall before changing names inferior to the diaphragm?




    A) descending thoracic aorta
  27. In a fetus, most of the blood is shunted from the right to the left atrium through the



    B) foramen ovale
  28. Fetal blood is shunted from the pulmonary trunk to the aorta through which of the following?




    B) ductus arteriosus
  29. The word root varix, as used in “varicose,” appropriately translates as




    B) dilated vein
  30. Aging adults in the United States may expect which of the following changes in the cardiovascular system?




    D) all of the above
  31. Which structures are found only in arteries?




    A) internal and external elastic laminae
  32. In terms of both composition and relative position, the ____________ of the heart is most similar to the ____________ of vessel walls.




    A) endocardium; tunica intima
  33. Compared with larger arteries, smaller arteries tend to have less ____________ in their walls and more ____________.




    D) elastic tissue; smooth muscle
  34. Which type of true capillaries are enveloped, in certain locations, by the perivascular feet of astrocytes?




    A) continuous capillaries
  35. The cyclical contracting and relaxing of ____________ that alters blood flow through capillary beds about 5-10 times per minute is called ____________.




    D) precapillary sphincters; vasomotion
  36. Although both are performed by smooth muscle, ____________ raises blood pressure while ____________ primarily affects nutrient delivery.




    A) vasoconstriction; vasomotion
  37. Because, at rest, they hold about ____________ of the body's blood, ____________ function as blood reservoirs.



    C) 60%; veins
  38. All of the following are true of companion vessels except




    B) a pair can consist of either arteries or veins, but not both
  39. Diapedesis occurs mostly in which vessels?




    C) postcapillary venules
  40. TWhich structures are called the "functional units" of the cardiovascular system?




    C) capillaries
  41. At any given moment, which cardiovascular components contain the most blood?




    D) the systemic veins and venules
  42. The ____________ are to the walls of large blood vessels as the coronary vessels are to the myocardium.




    D) vasa vasorum
  43. Which of the following carry oxygenated blood only? (1) systemic arteries (2) systemic veins (3) pulmonary arteries (4) pulmonary veins




    D) 1 and 4
  44. The aorta and its primary branches are all ____________ arteries, as is the pulmonary trunk.




    B) elastic
  45. Of the following arteries, which does not contribute directly to an anastomosis?




    A) common carotid
  46. An artery with an anastomosis so tiny as to be ineffectual is




    D) a functional end artery
  47. In which of the following vessels could blood most likely flow bidirectionally?




    C) superior sagittal sinus
  48. Upon leaving the capillaries supplied by the celiac and the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries, blood flows into the




    B) hepatic portal system
  49. Arrange the names given to successive portions of the vessel that continues from the brachiocephalic trunk to supply the right upper limb: (1) radial artery (2) axillary artery (3) brachial artery (4) subclavian artery



    A) 4, 2, 3, 1
  50. The following sequence lists veins carrying a drop of blood from the leg to the heart. Which vein is missing?posterior tibial > popliteal > femoral > common iliac > inferior vena cava




    B) external iliac
  51. In the fetus, oxygenated blood returning from the placenta is shunted away from the liver by the




    C) ductus venosus
  52. Which one of the following is not a postnatal circulatory change?




    D) increased pressure within the right atrium opens the foramen ovale
  53. At birth, the ____________ replaces the hole in the interatrial septum that has the same name as a hole in the sphenoid bone of the skull.




    C) fossa ovalis
  54. The ductus arteriosus closes at birth, leaving a fibrous remnant, the ligamentum




    B) arteriosum
  55. What vascular disorder is characterized by altered endothelia and the buildup of fatty plaques in arterial lumens?




    C) atherosclerosis
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Human Anatomy Chapter 23 Vessels and Circulation
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Human Anatomy Chapter 23 Vessels and Circulation
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