Psychology memory and learning

  1. What is Cognition?
    Thought process, problem solving, ability to use logic helps but is not necessary
  2. What is schema?
    The most basic idea and concept of something
  3. What is scaffolding?
  4. What is adaptation?
    • World is constantly changing, psychosocially evolving
    • Assimilation
    • Accomodation
    • Disequilibrium
  5. What is assimilation?
  6. What is accommodation?
  7. What is disequilibrium?
    Imbalance/ confusion
  8. What is intelligence?
    Capacity for processing (new) information and the ability to adapt to a changing environment
  9. What is the difference between Piaget and Vygosky?
    Piaget viewed children as thinkers while vygosky viewed children as learners
  10. What are the 4 stages of Piaget's Cognitive Development?
    • 1. Sensorimotor (Birth-2)
    • 2. Pre-Operational (2-7)
    • 3. Concrete Operational (7-11)
    • 4. Formal Operational
  11. What is the Sensorimotor focus on?
    The five senses
  12. What are the three parts of the sensory motor stage?
    • 1. Primary Circular Reaction (Birth-4 months)
    • 2. Secondary Circular Reaction (4 months-12)
    • 3. Tertiary Circular Reaction (12-24 months)
  13. The Primary circular Reaction is focused on what type of reaction?
    • All about them interaction
    • Focus on themselves only, reacting to the environment
  14. Secondary Circular Reaction is focused on what type of interaction?
    • One on one interaction, all about them and you
    • Synchrony
    • Creating relationships with others
    • Disabilities such as blindess and autism
  15. What is Synchrony?
    where you make a sound and the baby does it back, conversation back and forth,
  16. WHat happens in the Tertiary Circular Reaction stage?
    • i. Start having the ability for novel ideas, starting to walk, talk, goal directed behavior
    • ii. How stable we are, how confident we are
    • iii. Could be clingy
    • iv. Do things for a purpose, goal oriented
    • v. 200 words in this stage
    • vi. Object Permanence
  17. WHat is object permanence?
    Being able to know that even if you don’t see something it still exists, babies don’t know so they like Peek a boo, they think you disappear (8 months they gain object permanence)
  18. What is the pre operational stage focused on?
    • a. Operational- logic
    • b. Imagination and creativity stage
    • c. What you can do to foster creativity and imagination
  19. What are the 6 limitations in the pre operational stage?
    • 1. Centration
    • 2. Egocentric
    • 3. Lack of conversation
    • 4. Static reasoning
    • 5. Focus on appearance
    • 6. Irreversibility
  20. What is centration?
    focus things on a single angle, only see things in one perspective
  21. What is egocentric?
    see things at their own perspective at the moment
  22. What is lack of conservation?
    Don’t understand the amount and mass of something doesn’t change, even if the appearance does ex. 2 cups having the same amount, moving one cup to a tall glass and not knowing that they are the same amount
  23. What is static reasoning?
    Reasoning is very creative, understand things from one perspective
  24. What is focus on appearance?
    Relying so much on appearance
  25. What is irreversibility?
    Can’t understand how something can be done and undone, ex. Turning Juice into ice
  26. What is the concrete operational stage focused on?
    • a. Logic is very rule based and concrete
    • b. Laws and rules, black and white
    • c. Decentration
  27. What is decentration?
    Seeing things in different perspectives
  28. What are the two prosocial behaviors of emotional development in the concrete operational stage?
    Sympathy and empathy
  29. What is sympathy?
    Feeling bad or sad for someone, able to say I’m sorry and trying to make others feel better about themselves
  30. What is empathy?
    understanding what someone is going through because you have been through the situation before, deeper emotion
  31. What is the antisocial behavior that can happen in the concrete operational stage?
  32. What is antipathy?
    Opposite of sympathy and empathy, lack of regard of other people’s feelings
  33. What is the Formal Operational stage focused on?
    • a. Maturity and Experience
    • b. Abstract thinking
    •      i. Kohlberg Moral Development
    • c. Deductive Reasoning
  34. What is deductive reasoning?
    using facts, reasoning to create a solution
  35. What is memory?
    • evidence that learning has persisted overtime
    • The process by which info is encoded (input), stored (save) and retrieved (pull it out, recall)
  36. What are the three processes of memory?
    • 1. Encode
    • 2. Storage
    • 3. Retrieval/ Recall
  37. What is encode?
    How information is placed in our mind
  38. What are the three different ways information is encoded?
    • a. Visual- need to hold, see things, visual cues
    • b. Auditory/ Acoustic- respond well to audio tours, listening
    • c. Semantic-mental shortcut- mnemonic device
  39. What could happen when you don't encode the information correctly?
    d. Serial Position Effect- remembering the edges, remembering the middle and the end but not the middle
  40. What is storage?
    Saving information
  41. What are the three different types of storage?
    • 1. Sensory
    • 2. Short term memory
    • 3. Long term memory
  42. What are the three different types of sensory storage?
    • i. Iconic- things we see
    • ii. Echoic- things we hear
    • iii. Eidetic- remember everything, cannot tell the difference between iconic and echoic
  43. What is short term memory?
    Working memory
  44. What happens to information we do not need anymore in our short term?
  45. What is the best way to get information in our short term memory?
    Maintenance Rehearsal (repetition)
  46. What four things gets information in our long term memory?
    • 1. Elaborative Rehearsal
    • 2. Flashbulb memories
    • 3. Implicit memories
    • 4. Explicit memories
  47. What is elaborative rehearsal?
    Personal meaning, elaboration
  48. What is flashbulb memories?
    When you can think of a memory instantly, when it is triggered by a sight, smell, word
  49. What is implicit memories?
    things we generally know through experiences, we don’t study from them, mostly go into our long term memory
  50. What is explicit memories?
    do not go automatically in our brain, what we study to get in our short term memory, take more effort, and need to be purposely put into our memory
  51. What is retrieval?
    How we pull out information
  52. What are the 5 cues in retrieval?
    • 1. Recognition
    • 2. Guided Recall
    • 3. True Recall
    • 4. Context dependent memories
    • 5. State dependent memories
  53. What is recognition?
    not needing to pull things out of your head,
  54. What is guided recall?
    fill in the blank, give you hints and code words to remember
  55. What is true recall?
    - essays, on your own, needing to spit things out of your brain
  56. What is Context dependent memories?
    being in the place where you had the memory in order to remember it
  57. What is state dependent memories?
    - being in an emotional state and making you think of a memory that brought the same emotion, ex. Watching a sad movie that made you think up of a sad memory you once had
  58. What is deferred imitation?
    Doing something that someone else did but they do it in a different time so they memorize it, first evidence of memory at 6 months
  59. What is haituation?
    learning not to respond to a repeated stimulus, learning to be bored with the familiar stimulus
Card Set
Psychology memory and learning
chapters 7 & 8