______ pertains to all aspects of life and living in a society; collective mental programming of people in a society
visible/surface culture ____%; invisible/deep culture ____%
What are the three characteristics of culture?
Successful international business management hinges on the ability to _______________________.
know, understand, and be able to work effectively under cultural differences
____ has the most pervasive impact on all aspects of doing business in a foreign market
What is the essence of successful international business management?
the ability to manage across cultural differences
What two things must you do in order to be successful in international business that goes beyond training?
- suppress ethnocentricity
- practice the 3 Rs (recognize, respect, refit)
What are the elements/structure of culture?
- values, attitudes, beliefs
- manner, customs
- personal communication
- social structure
- material culture
What are the two methods to classify culture?
- Kluckhohn-Strodtbeck Framework
- Hofstede Framework
What are the 6 questions that compare a cultures attitudes, values, and social structure that the K-S Method uses?
- 1. Do people believe that their environment controls them, that they control the environment, or that they are part of nature?
- 2. Do people focus on past events, on the present, or on the future implications of their actions?
- 3. Are people easily controlled and not to be trusted, or can they be trusted to act freely and responsibly?
- 4. Do people desire accomplishments in life, carefree lives, or spiritual and contemplative lives?
- 5. Do people believe that individuals or groups are responsible for each person's welfare?
- 6. Do people prefer to conduct most activities in private or public?
What are the five dimensions of Hofstede's Framework and what do they mean?
- 1. individualism vs collectivism
- 2. power distance (degree that culture accepts social inequality)
- 3. uncertainty avoidance (takes risks or avoids them)
- 4. masculine vs feminine (material vs caring, relaxed lifestyle)
- 5. long-term oriented (perspective on time)
good taste in arts; what is pleasing, beautiful
ideas, beliefs, and customs to which people are emotionally attached
preconceived tendencies of an individual toward a concept or object (influence behavior)
ways of behaving, speaking, and dressing in culture
habits or ways of behaving in specific circumstances that are passed down through generations
____ are influenced by religion
What are the two types of personal communication?
What are the forms of nonverbal communication?
- facial expressions
- voice tone
- physical posture
- overall appearance (clothing, hair, makeup)
all the technology used in a culture to manufacture goods and provide services
departure of highly educated people from one profession, geographic region, or nation to another
The quality of a nation's education system is related to its level of ________.
______ is crucial for passing on traditions, customs, and values
third or "link" language understood by two parties who speak different native languages
system of social stratification in which personal ability and actions determine social status and mobility
system of social stratification in which people are born into a social ranking, or caste, with no opportunity for social mobility
ease with which individuals can move up or down a culture's "social ladder"
process of ranking people into social layers or classes
a culture's fundamental organization, including its groups and institutions, its system of social positions and their relationships, and the process by which its resources are distributed
anything that represents a culture's way of life, including gestures, material objects, traditions, and concepts