Wade-Davis bill (1864) Radical Republicans’ plan for reconstruction that required loyalty oaths, abolition of slavery, repudiation of war debts, and denial of political rights to high-ranking Confederate officials; President Lincoln refused to sign the bill.
- Some western migrants became “squatters,”
- setting up farms on unoccupied land without a clear legal title.
- Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793, the machine
- separated cotton seed from cotton fiber, speeding cotton processing and making profitable the cultivation of the more hardy, but difficult to clean, short-staple cotton; led directly to the dramatic nineteenth-century expansion of slavery in the South.
- After abolition in the North, slavery had become the “peculiar institution” of the South—that is, an institution unique to
- southern society. The Mason-Dixon Line, drawn by two surveyors in the eighteenth century to settle a boundary dispute between Maryland and Pennsylvania, eventually became the dividing line between slavery and freedom.
- Racism, kinship ties, common participation in a democratic political culture, and regional loyalty in the face of outside criticism all served to cement bonds between planters and the South’s “plain folk.” Like other white southerners, most small farmers believed their economic and personal freedom rested on slavery. Not until the Civil War would class
- tensions among the white population threaten the planters’ domination.
- planters’ values glorified not the competitive
- capitalist marketplace but a hierarchical, agrarian society in which slaveholding gentlemen took personal responsibility for the physical and moral well-being of their dependents—women, children, and slaves.
- the freed people’s quest for individual and
- community improvement was their desire for education. The thirst for learning sprang from many sources—a desire to read the Bible, the need to prepare for the economic marketplace, and the opportunity, which arose in 1867, to take part in politics. Blacks of all ages flocked to the schools established by northern missionary societies, the Freedmen’s Bureau, and groups of ex- slaves
- themselves. Reconstruction also witnessed the creation of the nation’s first black colleges, including Fisk University in Tennessee, Hampton Institute in
- Virginia, and Howard University in the nation’s capital.
Type of farm tenancy that developed after the Civil War in which landless workers—often former slaves—farmed land in exchange for farm sup plies and a share of the crop.
- (1865–1866) Laws passed in southern states to
- restrict the rights of former slaves; to nullify the codes, Congress passed the
- Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the Fourteenth Amendment. Black codes are laws for each state that say if grandfather was a slave you can’t vote. If you can’t read, you can’t vote, if you’re black you can’t use the same facility as whites, no marriage to whites, not after sunset, no arms, no purchase or rental of land so they can only work the land for very minimal
- (1868) Guaranteed rights of citizenship to
- former slaves, in words similar to those of the Civil Rights Act of 1866.
Company’s avoidance of middle men by producing its own supplies and providing for distribution of its product.
- Law passed in 1887 meant to encourage adoption of white norms among Indians; broke up tribal holdings into small farms for
- Indian families, with the remainder sold to white purchasers.
Application of Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection to society; used the concept of the “survival of the fittest” to justify class distinctions and to explain poverty
- Preached by liberal Protestant clergymen in the
- late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; advocated the application of Christian principles to social problems generated by industrialization.
- The unrestricted minting of silver money. In
- language ringing with biblical imagery, Bryan condemned the gold standard: “You
- shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.” Bryan’s demand for “free
- silver” was the latest expression of the view that increasing the amount of
- currency in circulation would raise the prices farmers received for their crops
- and make it easier to pay off their debts. His nomination wrested control of
- the Democratic Party from long- dominant leaders like President Grover
- Cleveland, who were closely tied to eastern businessmen.
A migration in 1879 and 1880 by some 40,000–60,000 blacks to Kansas to escape the oppressive environment of the New South.
- Between 1890 and 1906, every southern state enacted laws or constitutional provisions meant to eliminate the black
- vote. Southern legislatures drafted laws
- that on paper appeared color-blind but that were actually designed to end black voting. The most popular devices were the poll tax (a fee that each citizen had to pay in order to retain the right to vote), literacy tests, and the requirement that a prospective voter demonstrate to election officials an
- “understanding” of the state constitution. Disenfranchisement led directly to the rise of a generation of southern demagogues, who mobilized white voters by extreme appeals to racism.
- Practice, particularly widespread in the South
- between 1890 and 1940, in which persons (usually black) accused of a crime were
- murdered by mobs before standing trial. Lynching often took place before large
- crowds, with law enforcement authorities not intervening.
- Reception center in New York Harbor through
- which most European immigrants to America were processed from 1892 to 1954.
- A new generation of journalists
- writing for mass-circulation national magazines exposed the ills of industrial
- and urban life. The Shame of the Cities (1904) by Lincoln Steffens showed how
- party bosses and business leaders profited from political corruption. Theodore
- Roosevelt disparaged such writing as “muckraking,” the use of journalistic
- skills to expose the underside of American life
The Louisiana Purchase
- Between 1795-1803 Thomas Jefferson was able to
- secure the Louisiana territory which was under Napoleon Bonaparte. This area included the Gulf of Mexico to
- Canada and from the Mississippi river to the Rocky Mountains. As a result of a
- slave revolution in Saint Dominique, Napoleon was unable to regain control of
- the Louisiana Territory as well as focus on his advancing and costly military
- advances in Europe. He sold the
- Louisiana Territory which allowed him to focus on Europe as well as fund his
- military. This played an important
- factor in the formation of the United States because it allowed Jefferson to
- double the size of the US as well as opened up trading routes to New Orleans
- and the western farmers.
- Proclamation in 1823 by President James Monroe. Basically expressed
- three principles. First, it warned European nations not to get involved in
- political matters in Central and South America. Second, the United States would abstain from involvement in the wars of Europe.
- Third, the United States would oppose any further efforts at colonization by
- European powers in the Americas. The Doctrine (or Americas diplomatic declaration of independence) was
- intended to show that the United States was the only country that could influence
- political powers in the Americas. Further, several countries in South American
- had recently undergone revolutions against their European colonial owners and
- ended up with republican governments. The United States agreed with their
- political philosophy and did not want to see those newly free nations
- become European colonies again. Based on the assumption that the Old and New Worlds formed separate
- political and diplomatic systems, it claimed for the United States the role of
- dominant power in the Western Hemisphere.
The Dred Scott Decision
- The Dred Scoot
- Decision was one of the most infamous rulings in the history of the Supreme
- Court. In March of 1857, Chief Justice
- Roger B. Taney declared that only White persons could be citizens of the United
- States. Taney insisted the founding
- fathers believed that blacks had no rights that the white man was bound to
- respect. In Wisconsin the ruling stated
- that Congress had no power under Constitution to bar slavery from a territory. It
- negates the Missouri Compromise there were no rights for blacks. It also
- meant that slaves were property and therefore the US government could not
- interfere with the sale, trade, or relocation westward of slaves and slavery.
Mountain Meadows Massacre
- The Mormons had moved to
- the Great Salt Lake Valley in the 1840s, hoping to practice their religion free
- of the persecution they had encountered in the East. Conflict was growing
- between the Mormons and the US government as the Mormon theology and polygamy
- created a rift with the government.
- President James Buchanan removed Brigham Young as Utah’s territory Governor
- but Young refused and federal troops were sent to enforce the order. On September 11, 1857 (35
- miles southwest of Cedar City, Utah) John D. Lee entered a wagon circle of non-Mormons
- (fearing they were harboring undercover soldiers) who were traveling through
- Utah on their way to California with a white flag, convincing the emigrants to
- surrender peacefully. Instead Lee ordered the massacre of nearly all the
- company (with the exception of a handful of very small children). Over 10o people were killed, and almost 20
- years later was one leader of the assault convicted of murder and executed.
Civil Rights Cases (Plessy v. Ferguson)
- Louisiana passed the Separate Car Act, legally segregating common carriers in
- 1892 which violated the Civil Rights Act of 1875, which had outlawed
- racial discrimination by hotels, theaters, railroads, and other public
- facilities. On June 7,
- 1892, 30-year-old Homer Plessy was jailed for sitting in the "White"
- car of the East Louisiana Railroad. Plessy was arrested and the case went all the
- way to the United States Supreme Court. Plessy's lawyer argued that the
- Separate Car Act violated the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments to the
- Constitution. In 1896, the Supreme Court of the United States heard the case
- and held the Louisiana segregation statute constitutional. Essentially the Supreme Court ruling
- established racial segregation did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment as long
- as facilities were separate but equal.
- John Marshall Harlan was the only one who insisted that it violated the
- principal of equal liberty stating “Our constitution is color-blind”. The Plessy v. Ferguson ruling lead to states
- passing laws mandating racial segregation in the South and despite and lead to
- the eventual the civil rights movement which included Rosa Parks and Martin
- Luther King
The Civil War is arguably one of the most
significant events in American History.
The war dramatically altered American understandings of citizenship,
freedom, and society. The beginning of
the war did not happen overnight. It
took years of compromise, debate, and conflict.
In an essay please respond to the following using specific
facts/dates/specifics, and analysis.
- The civil war, indeed, one of the most
- significant events in American history.
- There were multiple events that lead to war. America was became increasingly divided as a
- nation and the world was watching.
- American was built on a number of distinct fault lines and one of them
- was slavery and freedom. In the south
- slavery is a way of life, even for non-slave owners. Anti-slavery forces in the
- north threaten the South’s right to decide their fate. After
- abolition in the North, slavery had become an institution unique to southern
- society. The North and South toed the
- line, the The Mason Dixon line. While
- the MD line was initially established in 1767 by Charles Mason and Jeremiah
- Dixon as a resolution to a border dispute it eventually was the division line
- for North/South; Freedom/Slavery. Two of the events that lead to the civil war
- was the publishing of Uncle Tom’s Cabin and the movement lead by John
- Uncle Tom’s Cabin is one of the most
- effective literature for the anti-slavery movement. Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin (a loosely written autobiography about the
- fugitive slave Josiah Henson) in 1852. By
- 1854 it had sold more than 1 million copies as well and inspired many people to
- stand up against slavery. Stowe
- portrayed slaves as sympathetic men and women.
- Slaves were Christians (which contradicted the popular belief of most).
- She showed how slaves were held at to the mercy of their owners and how
- slaveholders split up families and abused their slaves. Uncle Tom’s Cabin
- spread like wild fire and sparked abolitionists to act
- John Brown is an armed
- abolitionist who led many attacks on slave owners. In May of 1856, after the
- attack on Lawrence, he gathered a few likeminded people and they murdered five
- proslavery settlers at Pottawatomie Creek.
- On October 16, 1859 Brown leads 21 men (5 black) in an ill attempt to
- seize Harpers Ferry. John brown wanted to light the fuse in
- the anti-slavery movement and he wants to lead a slave rebellion. His hopes were that by taking Harpers Ferry
- he could arm the slaves who, upon hearing of their attack would, of course,
- want to join. They didn’t. Brown was
- captured by federal solders commanded by Colonel Robert E. Lee and found guilty
- of treason in Virginia and Governor Henry A. Wise ordered his execution. Brown became a martyr for the North.
- The south was dependent on
- slavery for the crop production of cotton.
- The north was not dependent on slaves because they primarily dealt with
- the processing of cotton and other industrial productions. When Congress prohibited the import of
- slaves from Africa in 1808, the massive slave trade industry boomed within
- America. Between 1820 and 1860 roughly 2
- million slaves had been sold. These slave traders were brutal and
- uncaring. They split up families, sold
- sick slaves, and found ways to hide brutal treatment. Most in the South believed that blacks were
- innately inferior and unsuited for any other life but slavery. They believed that blacks carried the mark of
- Caine and were condemned by God through the act of Caine killing Able.
- As the treatment of slaves were revealed by abolitionists
- through pamphlets and literature like Uncle Tom’s Cabin the
- abolitionist movement expanded rapidly throughout the North. Between the
- formation of the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1833 and the end of the
- decade, around 100,000 northerners joined local groups devoted to abolition.
- The country was
- expanding, not only in its boundaries, but in its beliefs. As we expanded westward Slavery was always a
- constant debate. Wither it was the Texas Revolution in 1836 when Steve Austin
- asks for independence and imprisoned by Antonio Santana because Texans wanted
- to keep their slaves but Mexicans don’t want to allow more. Or in March 1857 Chief
- Justice Roger B. Taney declared that only white persons could be citizens of
- the United States and all
- slaves are property and the government cannot take slaves away from masters or
- prevent them from moving. A line was
- being drawn, gloves were dawned, and they toed the line. Like John Brown said “…the
- crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood.”
- It seems the country today still has troubles with this
- line. While slavery is gone, the
- treatment of people is still a state of turmoil. People of color are persecuted and judged. There are laws against this but it happens
- anyhow. There seems to be a new civil
- war brewing now though. The beliefs of equal
- rights are pitting this country against itself.
- I cant help but find similarities between the fight against slavery and
- the fight about equal rights. While I
- doubt it will lead to a new civil war, I certainly hope we can reflect on the
- past to avoid the devastation our country once experienced. It seems our country has once again, toed the
- line. We can only wait and see what the
- outcome is.
Essay 2: . Increased Immigration, expanding capitalism,
booming urban areas, and a rising class system all contributed to the growth of
poverty-stricken inhabitants. During the late 1800s middle-class activists
called the Progressives worked to deal with the poverty problem in America. In
an essay please answer the following questions:
- Around 1910 Progressivism
- came into popular belief among the “New Middle Class”, the early urban
- people. These people used to live on
- farms but have since moved to the city where they now own business and they
- want social change through reform and a utopian society. They are protestant,
- white, men and women who want reform because discrimination is rampant and
- poverty is so terrible. Progressivists
- are “Forward looking” business men and members of female reform organizations
- who feared their values and way of life was being threatened by the rise of big
- They want equal rights
- for black people, labor laws to protect children and adult workers and set
- wages, housing and sanitation reform, anti-prostitution, prohibition, and meat and food sanitation and inspections; just to name a
- few. In short they wanted to reform society and preserve Victorian values (manhood,
- modest dress, protestant, self-control, women at home, men at work). They are against prostitution, drinking and
- are absolutely against Catholics!
- Catholics are Irish,
- Italian, and Eastern European (Russian, Lithuanian, etc…). There was a growing number of natural born
- citizens who demanded that immigrants abandon their cultures and become fully
- Americanized. One example of this was in the book review of Compassion. Protestant white woman took over the welfare
- program set up by the nuns who were helping Irish women. They were offering daycare, food, clothing,
- etc… and the protestant women took ownership of the welfare system. They took children away from catholic women
- and placed them in Protestant homes where they could learn the values of the
- Victorian era.
- Another example of this
- was discussed in the Engendered Encounters book review in class. Feminist and antimodernist feminist both
- tried to alter the life of the Pueblo women.
- They viewed aspects of their lives provocative, such as some of their
- dances. They felt there was too much
- sexuality in them and they wanted to put a stop to it. They however felt they should increase the
- production of pottery, which was ironic because this took the women from their
- homes but allowed them to become self-sufficient.
- In order to shed light on
- the horrible living conditions of the poor and the treatment of the lower class
- there emerged a group of journalists and others know as Muckrakers. One such Muckraker is Upton Sinclair who
- wrote The Jungle which followed one Lithuanian family who settled in the meat
- packing district of Chicago. And while
- his writing exposed the harsh living conditions of immigrants, people focused
- more on his exposure of the abhorrent health and sanitary conditions of the
- meat packing industry. He exposes the
- horrible slaughtering practices. Cows
- are slaughtered together. Their meat
- left lying in piles on the floor for days.
- Rats are rampant and eating the slowly rotting meat. When it comes time to grind the meat, they
- shovel the meat, rats, and rat fecal matter into the meat grinders. A man
- fell into a boiler they don’t fish him out, they process this man with the
- food. When people learned they were
- eating rats and even humans it lead to public outrage and directly lead to the
- passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act of 1906.
- Another way the Muckrakers
- exposed the dark side of America was in the exposure of the Slums where human waste
- spilled into the streets. Multiple family’s
- are crammed into one tiny living structure.
- Jacob Riis, a Danish immigrant is a photographer and he exposes the hell
- of tenements. He enters into the slums
- and takes photographs of slum life. It shocks
- millions. He shows the wealthy the reality of the deplorable living
- conditions. He published these pictures
- in a book called “How the Other Half Lives” and it sold more than 28 million copies. Riis campaign forces playgrounds to be built in
- all schools and landlords to install indoor toilets.
- These are just a few samples of how the progressivists were able to influence
- and change the country. They were the
- yin to the industrialism yang. Sure some
- of their beliefs were a little far from great, like removing children from
- their families or trying to impose moral standards upon a nation. Their religious views may have limited some
- of the success they could have however I believe their positives outweighs the
- negatives. The Muckrakers exposed some absolute deplorable and discussing conditions
- which resulted in healthier and longer lives.