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  1. •Genome
    Genetic information in cell
  2. •Gene
    Segments of DNA that contain necessary code to make protein
  3. Gene product
    Biochemical material, either RNA or protein resulting from expression of gene
  4. ***Flow of genetic information
    DNA ------> RNA ------>Protein

    DNA to RNA through transcription and RNA to Protein through translaction
  5. 1. Genetic material structure

    2. What is basic unit of DNA structure
    1. Two strands twisted into a helix

    2. Basic unit of DNA structure is a nucleotide
  6. what are the 3 parts of a nucleotide
    –a 5 carbon sugar - deoxyribose

    –a phosphate group

    –a nitrogenous base – adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine
  7. Nucleotides covalently bond to...
    • Nucleotides covalently bond to form a
    • sugar-phosphate linkage – the backbone

    –each sugar attaches to two phosphates – 5′ carbon and 3′ carbon
  8. Complementary strands
    DNA strands are complementary

    –A pairs with T

    –G pairs with C

    –Each pair is a “base pair” (bp)


  9. DNA Replication words
    Origin of replication

    Semiconservative replication

    Replication fork
  10. DNA replication summary
    • 5' -> 3'
    • 1. Topoisomerase relieves DNA super coil
    • 2. Helocase opens up the DNA structure by breaking hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs
    • 3. DNA polymerase brings in nucleotides complementary 
    • 4. DNA polymerase needs help from Primase. OH at 3'. Primase creates a short RNA sequence, called a primer, on a DNA template strand so that DNA polymerase can make a copy of that DNA strand.  
    • 5. Ligase facilitates the joining of DNA strands together. Closes gaps
    • 6. New strands super coil
  11. Okazaki fragments
    are short newly synthesized DNA fragments formed on the lagging strand during the process of DNA replication
  12. RNA Structure
    •Function: Needed for protein synthesis

    •Structure:  Single-stranded


    –Adenine (A)  → Uracil (U)

    –Guanine (G)  → Cytosine (C)

    •Sugar: Ribose

    •Phosphate groups
  13. DNA-RNA Base Pairing
    DNA  → RNA

      C  → G

      G  → C

      T  → A

      A  → U
  14. 1. Replication

    2. Transcription
    1. Copies the entire chromosome (DNA)

    2. Copies from 1 gene (RNA)
  15. Purpose of transcription
    to use DNA information to make proteins that control cell activities
  16. 1. Transcription produces

    2. Components needed
    1. complementary base sequence of RNA

    2. RNA polymerase, RNA nucleotides
  17. Steps in transcription
    •Initiation: Promoter

    •Chain elongation

  18. Purpose of translation
    to decode nucleic acid

    - Translation produces protein
  19. Translation: Genetic code
    codons - triplets of mRNA that code for specific amino acid

    requires ribosome and tRNA

    codons per gene: 3
  20. nucleotides
    organic molecules that serve as the monomers, or subunits, of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA
  21. codon degeneracy
    Many codons are redundant, meaning that two or more codons can code for the same amino acid

    there are many instances in which different codons specify the same amino acid
  22. codon AUG
    Ribosome binds to first start codon. F-Met (Methionine)
  23. Transcription and Translation
    in prokaryotes transcription & translation occur simultaneously
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