1. Phenotypic
    considers macroscopic and microscopic morphology, physiology and biochemistry (looks like in colony with microscopic or macroscopic)
  2. Immunologic
    serological analysis (acid antibody see interaction and reaction)
  3. Genotypic
    genetic techniques increasing being used a sole resource for identifying bacteria (genetic technique, gene sequence)
  4. Direct test
    looking for antigen (pathogen) so add antibodies
  5. Indirect test
    looking for antibodies so add antigen (pathogen)
  6. Light microscopy aids in the observation of
    • cell shape, size and arrangement
    • gram stain reaction, acid fast reaction
    • endospores, granules, and capsules
  7. Electron microscopy can pinpoint additional structural features such as
    • cell wall
    • flagella
    • pili
    • fimbriae
  8. Traits that can be assessed with the naked eye: (macroscopy)
    appearance of colonies: texture, size, shape, pigment
  9. Patterns for growth in broth and gelatin media
    Image Upload 1
  10. Assess nutritional and metabolic activities
    • Fermentation of sugar
    • Capacity to digest complex polymer
    • Production of gas
    • Sensitivity to antibiotics
  11. Rapid test
    reading all on one strip look in coding
  12. Laboratory techniques: Results entered into a ________ _______ chart that can be used in assessment and treatment regimens
    Summary patient (requisition form)
  13. Serology method
    Involves in vitro testing of serum
  14. Serology method based on principle
    that antibodies have and extreme specificity to antigens- test if develop antibodies then introduce antigen
  15. Urine, cerebrospinal fluid, whole tissues, and saliva can be analyzed for the
    presence of specific antibodies
  16. Involves clumping of antigens
  17. Hemagglutination involves agglutination of
  18. Some viruses agglutinate RBC
    in vitro- performed or taking place in a test tube, culture dish, or elsewhere outside a living organism
  19. If contained antibodies then
    No clumping, positive
  20. If no antibodies then
    clumping (agglutination) negative
  21. Precipitation requires
    formation of a lattice between soluble antigen and antibody
  22. in fluid, _______ diffuse until reach _______
    molecules, ideal concentration- zone of equivalence
  23. in immunodiffusions, ____ and _____ diffuse through a gel until reach zone of equivalence
    antibodies and antigens
  24. Direct ELISA
    • Looking for antigen
    • 1. Antibody absorbed to well
    • 2. Patient sample is added; complementary antigen binds to antibody. RINSE- get rid of anything already been there so do not get false positive.
    • 3. Enzyme linked antibody specific for test antigen is added and binds to antigen, forming a sandwich. RINSE
    • 4. Enzyme substrate added and reaction produces a product that causes visible color change 
  25. Indirect ELISA
    • Looking for antibody
    • 1. Antigen is absorbed to well
    • 2. Patient serum is added; complimentary antibody binds to antigen. RINSE
    • 3. Enzyme linked antiHSIG is added and binds to bound antibody. RINSe
    • 4. Enzyme substrate is added and reaction produces a product that causes a visible color change. 
    • If no antibodies, no color change
  26. Fluorescent Antibody (FA) techniques: Direct FA
    looking for antigen (pathogen), add antibodies to glow
  27. Fluorescent Antibody (FA) techniques: Indirect FA
    • Looking for antibodies so add antigen (pathogen) 
    • Adding antigen to patients sample that tag/glow from dye to bind
Card Set
intro to health