What is a formal speech?
- The speech memorized & delivered word for word or read word for word from the manuscript.
- * Usally results in loss of conversational language
- * Effective for historical or scientific papers
What causes nervousness?
- desire to succeed
- poor preparation
- heightened emotion mistaken for fear
- unfamiliar with speaking situation
- conflict between the urge to communicate & the urge to withdraw
- fear of not meeting a standard
What is bad about visual aids?
- it could be too small for the audience to see
- you could stand where your blocking your visual aid
- it could take away from what you are saying
Can you control nervousness?
- use it to your advantage
- realize everyone experiences it
- be "idea" centered not "i" centered
- know your subject
- be interested in what you are doing
- practice, practice, practice
- use visual aids
- breathe properly; you are in control
What does APEC stand for?
- A-Attention getter
- P-Get to the Point quickly
- E-Use examples to illustrate
- C-Close effectively
What is good about visual aids?
- Makes the speech easy to remember for the speaker & the audience
- Capture the attention of an audience if exhibited moment without comment.
What is an Impromptu speech?
The speech delivered on th spur of the moment
What makes a bad speech opening?
- Unnecessary introductory remarks
- An apology
What makes a good speech opening?
- Arouse Curiosity
- * Openings which provoke the curiosity of the audience may vary from mild shocking statements
- Tell a Story
- * A human interest story is an effective opening
- Exhibit and article
- * Exhibition of an object as a speech opening will capture the greatest attention is if is exhibited for a moment without comment.
- Ask a question
- *quote a famous or important person
- *state a shocking fact
- *begin with a specific illustration
What is an extemporaneous speech?
- The speech spoken from notes & not written out.
- The extemporaneous method of speaking from a prepared speech outline permits a more friendly & expressive eye contact than from memorization.
What does audience awareness involve?
- I. analyze the audience in shoosing your speech material
- a. Education
- b. Social Status
- c. Economic Status
- d. Occupation(s)
- e. Age
- f. Sex
- g. Personal Attitudes
- h. Common Interests
- i. Mood of the Audience
- j. Prejudices
- k. Auditorium & Seating
- II. Impressing the audience; attitude & appearance do impress an audience
- * solicit a warm response from the audience by assuming a friendly attitude-Smile
- * Do not assume a stiff air of superiority
- * Check your physical appearance-suit/dress pressed, shoes shined, hair neat & clean, etc.
- III. Talk to the audience as a whole-group the crowd together for maximum audience response
- Look at you audience-proper eye contact is very important
- Getting the audience to accept you
- Indicate personal association. ( I too, am a interested citizen...")
- Identify with generally accepted or approved ideals. Values & principles. (Have something in common with them....be trusted)
- Identify with your listeners' beliefs, desires or welfare. (Like you I want...or believe in...etc.)
- Base your reasoning on deep seated wants-amoung these are the basic physical wants, a desire for safety & security, a need for love & a striving for individuality & selffulfillment.
Is preparation & rehearsal a good idea?
Understanding good closings & effective endings
- Good Closing
- *The closing should be emphasize the thought the speaker wished the audience to retain.
- *Make the ending interesting, brief & to the point
- * Don't say the obvious-"that's the way I see it anyway"
- *Don't be trite-"In comclusion I would like to say"
- *Don't use an insincere compliment in closing
- *Don't ramble through the ending
- Effective Endings
- * Effective for re-emphasizing
- * Essential when multiple phases of a subject are covered
- *Appeal for action
- *May be mild or strong
- *May apply to emotional appeal
- *Ask them to act
- *Appropritate Verse
- *should be the goal of most good speakers
What can you do to improve as a public speaker?
- Discover & recognize your needs & abilities as a speaker
- Become familar with the goals you must obtain & the pathways you must follow to achieve them.
- Supplant any old, undesirable habits with new & more desirable ones, through practices & rehearsal before & after speaking
What are the do's & dont's of microphone usage?
- Right height
- Check audibility
- Should be titled upward to about the level of your chin
- Stand back or to the side so that your mouth is 10-12 inches from the mike
- Try to avoid the mike obscuring your face
- If you hear your voice coming back you are too close
- Your mouth should remain the same distance from the mike at all times
- Avoid speaking in a voice too loud or too low
- Keep your arms free-dont' handle the mike after you start speaking
- If your demonstration requires walking some distance from the lectern, it is advisable to have a poratable mike.
Know what makes a good Chairperson or Toastmaster
- Chairperson- Serves as a host for other speakers
- *While making an introduction the chairperson should not attempt to impress others with their ability as a speaker
- * Duty is to get the speakers off to a good start
- * Not necessary to mention the speakers name first in the introduction
- Toastmaster- has the responsibility of making the activities go smoother
- * should learn the theme & background of each speaker
Know the general tips for the use of notes & note cards
- Plan how to handle them-placement
- Should consit of an outline of your speech
- Can be on the margin of manuscript
- Put them in place before you begin
- Practice with your notes
- Learn to carry them in either hand for better gesturing
- Have enough light to read
- Leave the notes in one place
- Remember not to place them behind you
- Don't fumble with them
- Don't talk to them
- Don't be afraid of forgetting
How can the speaker use audience awareness to an advantage?
- Solicit a warm response
- Check physical appearance
- Talk to the audience as a whole
- Look at the audience
What is the importance of public speaking to the average person?
What is the importance of public speaking to the funeral director?
- Different occasions will arise in most lifetimes, when addressing an audience.
- Becoming a civic, social or professional, obligations; may not be avoidable but, welcomed to the funeral director as well as the community, the ability to speak effectively & to the point may be acquired & can be an instrument of power & usefulness.
What are some tips for getting the audience to accept you as a speaker?
What are the guidelines for proper enunciation, pronunciation & language?
- a. use picture building words
- b. be original-don't use trite words & phrases; tired as a dog
- c. don't use Uh
- d. avoid using the wrong words
- e. dont use bad grammer
- f. avoid technical jargon
- g. keep your average sentence short
- h. don't make conspicuous, slovenly or careless mispronunciations
- i. use slang sparingly
- j. avoid excessive use of big words
- Enunciation & Pronunciation
- a. articulate your syllables as clearly a possible
- b. open your mouth & let the vowels come forth
- c. don't smother your consonants or lose them at the end of words
Tips & guidelines
- a. Gesture & words they accompany not necessarily at the same time
- b. Gesture precedes the words
- c. Purposeful brief & intentional movement
- d. gesticulations-nervous twitches
- e. only natural gestures should be used
- f. people do notlike a finger pointed at them
- g. do not use the same one over and over
- h. many parts of the body should be coordinated in the same gesture
- a. leave hands free
- b. use your hands natually to describe something or to bring home a point
- c. don't make movements that have nothing to do with your talk
- Facial Expression
- a. look pleasant; not grim
- b. be sincere; not silly
- c. look enthusiastic; not bored
- d. smile & use plenty of facial responsiveness
- Eye contact
- a. watch the faces of the audience to keep them alet
- b. Platform position
- c. place weight on balls of the feet-makes speaker look alert
- d. face the audience
- e. stand still
- f. stand erect
- g. watch your nervous habit
- h. don't smoke
components & definitions of the voice
- Voice-should be animated with continuous changes of pitch, volume & rate of speed; used to hold attention.
- Volume-Loudness; address yourself to the back row
- Pitch-Frequency of vibrations in sound; use natural pitch
- Tone-quality of voice; provides color that makes speakers voice express feeling & thought
- Modulation & Accet-Manipulate volume, pitch & tone to obtain desired effects; pauses
- Rate-do not speak too fast
- Vocal Vareity
- Vary the rate of speaking
- Vary the length of phrases
- Change the volume
- Raise & lower pitch
- Stretch the vowels
- Use the all important-Dramatic Pause