Converting chemical energy into light
All chemical reactions necessary to maintain life
Series of steps in which a molecule is altered in order to get the final product.
The breakdown of molecules
The building up of molecules
Study of how energy flows through living organisms.
The ability to do work.
Energy at motion
i.e. ball being pushed down a hill
Study of energy transformation
1st Law of Thermodynamics
Energy in the universe can not be created or destroyed, but it can change form.
2nd law of thermodynamics
Energy is lost as it changes form.
occurs without the input of energy.
Any energy in a system that can perform work
Delta G, Negative and positive
Change in free energy, negative means it is spontaneous , positive means you have to put energy into it.
Reaction goes forward and backward at same rate
Using an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction
Energy molecule of a cell made of 3 parts: Ribose, 1 or more phosphate, and base.
Chemical agents that speed up a reaction without being changed themselves.
The energy required to start a reaction
Condition in which a molecule has absorbed enough energy for the bonds within it to break.
The compound that an enzyme acts on
Spot on the enzyme where the substrate fits
The effect of temp on an enzyme
An increase of temp speeds enzymes
The effect of pH on an enzyme
Any change in pH usually decreases enzyme action
Atoms or molecules that help an enzyme
Bind to the active site and slow or stop an enzyme. Good or bad and are reversible
Can be reversible or irreversible. Bind to some spot on the enzyme other than the active site.
Usually quaternary. They alternate between 2 shapes.
A product somewhere in the pathway flows back and stops or slows earlier steps in the pathway.
The complete breakdown of sugar with plenty of water
The transfer of electrons from one molecule to another
The gain of electrons
The loss of electrons
Gives electrons away
Takes electrons away
The partial breakdown of sugar with little to no Oxygen
Only perform fermentation- can't survive without oxygen
Can perform fermentation and aerobic respiration, live with or without oxygen
The removal of an amin group so the amino acid can enter the Krebs cycle.
Breakdown of fats into two carbons long
Produce their own food. All have chloroplasts
Two membranes or chloroplasts
Outer and Inner
Space filled with fluid in chloroplasts
Round disk like features in the chloroplasts
Stacks of thylakoids in chloroplasts
Eat their food, can't make it.
Incorporation the carbon from CO2 into an organic compound
A particle of light with a fixed amount of energy
Substances that absorb physical light
Instruments that measures the amount of light absorbed by a substance
Reflect yellow-orange wavelengths
Chlorophyll's response to absorbing light energy
One of its electrons jumps from its normal orbit to its outer shell.