Biology 2

  1. Bioluminesence
    Converting chemical energy into light
  2. Metabolism
    All chemical reactions necessary to maintain life
  3. Metabolic pathway
    Series of steps in which a molecule is altered in order to get the final product.
  4. Catabolism
    The breakdown of molecules
  5. Anabolism
    The building up of molecules
  6. Bioenergetics
    Study of how energy flows through living organisms.
  7. Energy
    The ability to do work.
  8. Kinetic energy
    Energy at motion
  9. Potential energy
    • Stored energy
    • i.e. ball being pushed down a hill
  10. Thermodynamics
    Study of energy transformation
  11. 1st Law of Thermodynamics
    Energy in the universe can not be created or destroyed, but it can change form.
  12. 2nd law of thermodynamics
    Energy is lost as it changes form.
  13. Spontaneous process
    occurs without the input of energy.
  14. Free energy
    Any energy in a system that can perform work
  15. Delta G, Negative and positive
    Change in free energy, negative means it is spontaneous , positive means you have to put energy into it.
  16. Equilibrium
    Reaction goes forward and backward at same rate
  17. Exergonic reaction
    Releases energy
  18. Endergonic reaction
    Requires energy.
  19. Energy coupling
    Using an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction
  20. Atp
    Energy molecule of a cell made of 3 parts: Ribose, 1 or more phosphate, and base.
  21. Catalysts
    Chemical agents that speed up a reaction without being changed themselves.
  22. Activation energy
    The energy required to start a reaction
  23. Transition state
    Condition in which a molecule has absorbed enough energy for the bonds within it to break.
  24. Substrate
    The compound that an enzyme acts on
  25. Active site
    Spot on the enzyme where the substrate fits
  26. The effect of temp on an enzyme
    An increase of temp speeds enzymes
  27. The effect of pH on an enzyme
    Any change in pH usually decreases enzyme action
  28. Cofactors/ coenzymes
    Atoms or molecules that help an enzyme
  29. Competitive inhibitors
    Bind to the active site and slow or stop an enzyme. Good or bad and are reversible
  30. Allosteric spot
    Can be reversible or irreversible. Bind to some spot on the enzyme other than the active site.
  31. Allosteric enzymes
    Usually quaternary. They alternate between 2 shapes.
  32. Feedback inhibition
    A product somewhere in the pathway flows back and stops or slows earlier steps in the pathway.
  33. Aerobic respiration
    The complete breakdown of sugar with plenty of water
  34. Redox reaction
    The transfer of electrons from one molecule to another
  35. Reduction
    The gain of electrons
  36. Oxidation
    The loss of electrons
  37. Reducing agent
    Gives electrons away
  38. Oxidizing agent
    Takes electrons away
  39. Fermentation
    The partial breakdown of sugar with little to no Oxygen
  40. Obligate anaerobes
    Only perform fermentation- can't survive without oxygen
  41. Facultative aerobes
    Can perform fermentation and aerobic respiration, live with or without oxygen
  42. Deamination
    The removal of an amin group so the amino acid can enter the Krebs cycle.
  43. Beta Oxidation
    Breakdown of fats into two carbons long
  44. Autotrophs
    Produce their own food. All have chloroplasts
  45. Two membranes or chloroplasts
    Outer and Inner
  46. Stroma
    Space filled with fluid in chloroplasts
  47. Thylakoid
    Round disk like features in the chloroplasts
  48. Granum
    Stacks of thylakoids in chloroplasts
  49. Heterotrophs
    Eat their food, can't make it.
  50. Carbon fixation
    Incorporation the carbon from CO2 into an organic compound
  51. Photons
    A particle of light with a fixed amount of energy
  52. Pigments
    Substances that absorb physical light
  53. Spectrophotometer
    Instruments that measures the amount of light absorbed by a substance
  54. Carotenoids
    Reflect yellow-orange wavelengths
  55. Chlorophyll's response to absorbing light energy
    One of its electrons jumps from its normal orbit to its outer shell.
Card Set
Biology 2