AP Euro - Chapter 27 Test Review

  1. Schlieffen Plan
    Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
  2. Dual Alliance
    created by Bismarck; contained Austria-Hungary and Germany when Russia left the alliance preceding the Congress of Berlin
  3. Bolsheviks
    Led by Vladimir Lenin it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian goverment during WWI
  4. Triple Alliance
    Alliance between Germany, Italy, Austria Hungry
  5. New Imperialism
    Historians' term for the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century wave of conquests by European powers, the United States, and Japan, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories.
  6. Lusitania
    British boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; 137 Americans died, made America consider entering WWI
  7. David Lloyd George
    He was the British representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
  8. Moroccan Crises
    Tensions before world war I over France's desire to take Morocco
  9. Georges Clemenceau
    He was the French representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
  10. Franco-Russian Alliance
    A military alliance between the French and the Russians, undermined German supremacy, they remained allies until 1917
  11. Tsar Nicholas II
    Louis XVI esque ruler of Russia whose lack of leadership skills resulted in the rise of communism, last Tsar
  12. Petrograd Soviet
    the political party with whom the Provisional Government had to share power with
  13. Leon Trotsky
    Russian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army
  14. Boer War
    Lasting from 1899 to 1902, Dutch colonists and the British competed for control of territory in South Africa.
  15. Vladimir Lenin
    Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)
  16. Rasputin
    Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Tsarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues. He was believed to be having a sexual affair with Tsarina Alexandra and was assassinated by three members of the higher aristocracy; Tsarina Alexandra was very distraught and depressed due to his death.
  17. Triple Entente
    An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
  18. Treaty of Brest Litovsk
    treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.
  19. The First Battle of the Marne
    stopped the German's from entering Paris, and set the tone of a stalemate for the rest of the war
  20. Wilhem II
    Germany's Kaiser during World War I who gave the "blank check" to Austria-Hungary declaring their alliance if war should come about.
  21. League of Nations
    an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
  22. Vittorio Orlando
    He was the Italian representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
  23. March Revolution of 1917
    As a result of this revolution the Romanov dynasty was removed from power after 300 years of autocratic rule and replaced with the provisional government led by Alexander Kerenski
  24. October Revolution of 1917
    the coup d'etat by the Bolsheviks under Lenin in November 1917 that led to a period of civil war which ended in victory for the Bolsheviks in 1922
  25. Provisional Government
    Temporary government put in place after the March Revolution led by Alexander Kerenski
  26. Woodrow Wilson
    28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
  27. WWI Casualties
    8-9 million through europe (destroyed a generation of european men), 4 mill russian, french and british soldiers. 2 mill germans, 100,000 u.s. 30mil wounded or dead total.
  28. The Black Hand
    A Serbian terrorist organization dedicated to the creation of a pan-Slavic kingdom. Responsible for the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand.
  29. Versaille Treaty
    treaty ending WWI and making a League of Nations. it also punished Germany by making them pay a lot and give up all their territories
  30. Battle of Verdun
    Battle fought between French and German armies from February to December 1916; more than 700,000 people died - one of the most costly battles of the WWI.
  31. Blank Check
    a check that has been signed but with the amount payable left blank. Reference to the full support provided by William II to Austria-Hungary in its conflict with Serbia. Also refers to the promise of support given by Russia to Serbia to develop of Slavic state.
  32. Article 231
    This was the "war-guilt clause" in the Treaty of Versailles that placed total responsibility for World War I on Germany.
  33. Weimar Republic
    The name of Germany's fledgling post WWI democracy. Named for the seat of government, it was beset by social and economic problems and ended with the election of Hitler.
  34. Triple Entente
    France, Russia, Great Britian. Become Allied Powers
  35. Triple Alliance
    Germany, Austria Hungary, Italy. Become Central Powers.
  36. Fashoda Affair
    Dispute between GB and France over Sudan.
  37. What did each Nation/Leader want?
    • George Clemenceau, France - Vengence and Saar
    • David Lloyd George, GB - Compensation
    • Vittorio Orlando, Italy - Land
    • Wilson, USA - League of Nations
    • Delegation, Japan - Chinese Land
  38. Vera Brittain
    Wrote Testament of Youth, an autobiography about how war defined her life.
  39. War Communism
    Applying total war concepts to civil conflicts. Seizing grains from peasants, rationing, forcing everyone to work and nationalizing industry. Allowed communism to be implemented and the Red Army to be supplied.
Card Set
AP Euro - Chapter 27 Test Review
AP Euro - Chapter 27 Test Review