AQA P1.1

  1. The name we give to the range of radiation from radio waves to gamma rays
    Electromagnetic spectrum
  2. What we call the process of giving off radiation
  3. What type of surfaces reflect radiation the best?
  4. What is the change of state from liquid to gas?
  5. Which state of matter fits the container shape (but doesn't fill it)?
  6. What type of materials make the best thermal conductors?
  7. Which two states of matter are fluids?
    Liquids and gases
  8. Why do hot fluids rise?
    Heating causes them to expand so they become less dense and so rise
  9. Name 3 greenhouse gases
    • Water vapour,
    • methane,
    • carbon dioxide
  10. What type of surfaces are the best emitters of radiation?
    Dark coloured / rough
  11. What are the 3 common states of matter?
    • solids
    • liquids
    • gases
  12. What is the change of state from solid to liquid?
  13. What is the change of state from gas to liquid?
  14. Why are metals good conductors of heat?
    They have free electrons that are free to move, can collide with each other, and pass on their energy.
  15. What is convection?
    The circulation of a fluid caused by warmer fluids rising and colder fluids falling.
  16. Does evaporation warm things up or cool them down?
    Cools them down
  17. The type of radiation emitted by all warm things
  18. What type of surfaces absorb the most radiation?
    Dark coloured (and rough)
  19. Which state of matter has the lowest density?
  20. What is the change of state from solid to gas?
  21. What do we call something that is a poor conductor of thermal energy?
  22. What do we call the process of particles spreading out from an area of high concentration to a lower concentration?
  23. Why does convection not happen in solids?
    The particles in solids are not free to move around
  24. Name 3 ways to speed up the rate of evaporation
    • increase the surface area,
    • increase the temperature,
    • increase the air flow
  25. Name five methods of heat transfer
    • conduction,
    • convection,
    • radiation,
    • evaporation,
    • condensation
  26. In the equation,

    Image Upload 1

    what does Image Upload 2  represent?
    The specific heat capacity of the material
  27. What does the U-value of a material tell you?
    How good an insulator the material is
  28. Why does good double glazing have a vacuum between the two panes of glass?
    Vacuums do not contain air particles so reduce energy loss through convection and conduction
  29. Which heat transfer mechanism works in a vacuum?
  30. Is air a good or bad insulator?
    Good, (because it is a gas the particles are far apart)
  31. If air is such a good insulator, why is cavity wall insulation more effective than just air?
    Cavity wall insulation traps air so reduces convection as well as conduction
  32. What is wrong with saying that heat rises?
    It is the hot fluid (carrying the thermal energy) that rises, not the heat
  33. Will a large difference in temperature between an object & its surroundings make its temperature change faster or slower?
  34. In the equation,

    Image Upload 3

    what does Image Upload 4  represent?
    The temperature change
  35. Does a good thermal insulator have a low or high U-value?
  36. What is payback time?
    The time it takes to save the amount of money it cost to install something (like solar panels). (After this time you are saving more than in cost to install the thing)
  37. Which is the only heat transfer mechanism that uses electromagnetic (EM) waves?
  38. What type of materials contain free electrons?
  39. Does a large block of copper need more or less energy to heat up by 5oC than a small block of copper?
    • More
    • Remember that  Image Upload 5
  40. What is loft insulation usually made out of?
  41. What is the unit of energy (name and symbol)?
    Joule (J)
  42. Water has a high specific heat capacity. What does this mean?
    It takes a lot of energy to increase its temperature

    • Remember
    • Image Upload 6
  43. Name 5 ways of reducing energy loss from houses
    • loft insulation,
    • double-glazing,
    • cavity wall insulation,
    • draught proofing,
    • aluminium foil behind radiators
  44. Which heat transfer mechanism relies on particles passing energy from one to the other
  45. Why are car radiators painted matt black?
    Dark dull surfaces emit more heat energy than shiny light ones
  46. Why are solar heating panels usually painted black?
    Dark colours absorb more heat radiation than light ones so will be more efficient
  47. Name 2 ways of speeding up condensation on a surface
    • increase surface area,
    • reduce temperature
  48. At what temperature does water evaporate?
    All temperatures above freezing. (The higher the temperature the faster it evaporates)
  49. Which one of these does not need particles?

    C) radiation
Card Set
AQA P1.1
Topic 1