AP History Court Cases

  1. Marbury v. Madison
    Establishes the federal courts power of judicial review
  2. McCulloch v. Maryland
    allows for a broad interpretation of Constitutional powers and establishes the principle that the Constitution grants the federal government certain implied powers
  3. Gibbons v. Ogden
    establishes the supremacy of the federal government and federal laws when it comes to regulating interstate trade and/or commerce
  4. Dred Scott v. Sanford
    upheld property rights over human rights ("free soil; slaves")
  5. Munn v. Illinois
    • public interest activity could be governed by state legislatures whereas private contracts could only be governed by the courts 
    • "for protection against abuse by the legislatures, the people must resort to the polls, not the courts"
  6. Plessy v. Ferguson
    • "separate but equal" 
    • 14th Amendment did not guarantee social equality; only political and civil equality
  7. schenck v. United States
    1st Amendment guarantees were not absolute; specifically in a time of war
  8. Korematsu b. United States
    upheld military order; pressing public necessity may sometimes justify the existence of restrictions which curtail the civil rights of a single racial group
  9. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
    the doctrine of "separate but equal" does not apply in the field of public education... segregation is a denial of the equal protection clause
  10. cooper v aaron
    Arkansas could not pass legislation undermining the Supreme Court's ruling
  11. Mapp v. Ohio
    evidence gained illegally could/can not be permitted in court
  12. engel v. vitale
    recitation of a nonsectarian prayer was unconstitutional
  13. gideon v wainwright
    the right to an attorney regardless of the crime of financial backing
  14. reynolds v Sims (Baker v. Carr)
    • - ruled that equal protection clause requires legislative districts across states to be equal 
    • -it was within the scope of the judicial branch of gov. to rule on matters of legislative apportionment
  15. griswold v Connecticut
    "unenumerated rights" various guarantees of the Constitution create zones of privacy
  16. Miranda v. Arizona
    miranda rights
  17. terry v. Ohio
    police officers can stop and frisk someone on the street without probable cause to arrest but reasonable suspicion
  18. tinker v. Desmoines
    gave students limited first amendment rights
  19. san antonio independent school district v. Rodriguez
    allowed for property tax based education funding programs at state level
  20. roe v. wade
    struck down state regulation of abortion in first 3 months of pregnancy
  21. united states v. nixon
    • limited executive privilege;
    • the presidents generalized interest in confidentiality was subordinate to the fundamental demands of due process of law in the fair administration of criminal justice
  22. regents of california v. bakke
    although race can be a factor in determining admission it may not be the sole determining factor
  23. new jersey v. T.L.O.
    "reasonable suspicion" rule for school searches, a change from from the "probable cause" requirement in wider society
  24. Hazelwood v. Kuhmeier
    school officials had full control over school sponsored activities "so long as their actions are reasonably related to legitimate pedagogical concerns"
  25. texas v. johnson
    establishes the supremacy of the first amendment when it comes to petitioning the government and freedom of speech; including flag burning
  26. bush v. gore
    any manual recount of votes, in this situation, would be unconstitutional (14th Amendment)
  27. Citizens United v. Federal Elections Commisson
    1st amendment prohibits government from restricting independent political expenditures by a nonprofit corporation
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AP History Court Cases
Government Study Guide