1.  Vitamin A

    • Night-blindness and
    • Keratomalacia

    Deficiency: Night blindness;

    reduced hair growth in children; loss of apetite; dry, rough

    skin; lowered resistance to infection; dry eyes. Overdose:

    Headaches; blurred vision; fatigue; diarrhea; irregular periods;

    joint and bone pain; dry, cracked skin; rashes; loss of hair;

    vomiting, liver damage.
  2. Vitamin D
    Deficiency: Rickets in children;

    • Rickets and Osteomalacia
    • bone softening in adults; osteoporosis.
    • Men: 100 IU
    • Women: 100 IU
    • Egg Yolk, Milk, Exposure to sun enables body to make its own Vitamin D.
    • Helps build and maintain teeth and bones. Enhances calcium absorption.
  3. Vitamin E deficiency:

    Corn or Cottonseed Oil, Butter,
    Brown Rice, Soybean Oil, Vegetable oils such as Corn, Cottonseed
    or Soybean, Nuts, Wheat Germ.

    Antioxidant. Helps form red blood cells, muscles and other tissues. Preserves fatty acids.
    deficiency: Rare, seen primarily

    in premature or low birth weight babies or children who do not

    absorb fat properly. Causes nerve abnormalities. Overdose:
  4. Vitamin K def:

    Estimated at 0.03 mcg/kg
    Green Vegetables, Liver, also made
    by intestinal bacteria.
    Needed for normal blood clotting.

    Defective blood coagulation. Overdose: Jaundice

    in infants.
  5. thiamine
    Vitamin B1
    Men: 0.8 - 1.3 mg
    Women: 0.8 mg
    Sunflower Seeds, Pork, whole and enriched Grains, dried Beans.
    Necessary for carbohydrate metabolism and muscle coordination. Promotes proper nerve function.
    • Deficiency: 1.2 mg
    • Beriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
    • Anxiety; hysteria; depression; muscle cramps; loss of apetite;
    • in extreme cases beriberi (mostly in alcoholics).

    • Overdose:
    • Unknown, although excess of one B vitamin may cause deficiency
    • of others
  6. riboflavin
    Vitamin B2
    Men: 1.3 - 1.6 mg
    Women: 1.1 mg
    Liver, Milk, Spinach, enriched Noodles, Mushrooms.
    Needed for metabolism of all foods and the release of energy to cells. Essential to the functioning of Vitamin B6 and Niacin.
    • Deficiency: Cracks and sores
    • around the mouth and nose; visual problems.
    • Ariboflavinosis
  7. Niacin
    Vitamin B3
    Men: 16-23 mg
    Women: 14-16 mg
    Niacin is converted to niacinamide in the body.
    Mushrooms, Bran, Tuna, Chicken,
    Beef, Peanuts, enriched Grains.
    Needed in many enzymes that convert
    food to energy. Helps maintain a healthy digestive tract and
    nervous system. In very large doses, lower cholesterol (large
    doses should only be taken under the advice of a physician).
    • Deficiency:
    • In extreme cases, pellagra, a disease characterized by dermatitis,
    • diarrhea and mouth sores.
    • Overdose:
    • Hot flashes; ulcers; liver disorders; high blood sugar
    • and uric acid; cardiac arrythmias.
  8. Folic Acid (Folacin) deficiency:
    Men: 180-220 mg
    Women: 160-190 mg
    Green, leafy vegetables, Orange Juice, organ Meats, Sprouts.
    Essential for the manufacture of genetic material as well as protein metabolism and red blood cell formation.
    • Deficiency: Impaired cell division; anemia; diarrhea; gastrointestinal upsets. Overdose:
    • Convulsions in epileptics. May mask pernicious anemia (see Vitamin B12 deficiency).
    • Adequate amounts of this nutrient in the first stage of pregnancy may
    • reduce the risks of neural tube birth defects
  9. Vitamin C
    Ascorbic Acid
    Men: 40 mg
    Women: 30 mg
    Citrus Fruits, Strawberries, Broccoli, Green Peppers
    Antioxidant. Helps bind cells together and strengthens blood vessel walls. Helps maintain healthy gums.
    Aids in the absorption of iron.
    • Deficiency: Muscle weakness, bleeding gums; easy bruising. In extreme cases, scurvy.
    • Overdose:
    • Unknown.
    • The antioxidant properties of this
    • nutrient may be a factor in reducing the risk of certain forms
    • of cancer. May reduce the effects of the common cold.
  10. B6 helps body use amino acids to make __________
  11. The active 5 B vit thiam ribo, niacin, pantothenic acid and biotin participate in the release of _________ from carbs, fat and protein
  12. _________ help cells to multiply like red blood cells
    1. Part of coenzyme for energy metabolism
    2. Important for nervous system and appetite
  13. vit b def
  14. VITAMIN ____
    1. Regulation of gene expression
    2. Vision and healthy cornea
    3. Skin and body linings (intestine, respiratory, etc.)

    maintains the mucus & moistness of linings
    4. Immunity
    5. Bone
    and tooth growth
    6. The precursor beta-carotene (in foods) acts as an antioxidant
  16. Deficiency
    1. Mild Deficiency – night blindness, intestinal and respiratory infections
    2. Severe Deficiency - Xerophthalmia (hardening of cornea) ⇒ permanent blindness•
    Vitamin A
  17. Three locations Vitamin __ acts on are skeleton, digestive track, and the kidneys to raise blood calcium
  18. Vitamin___ assists in the absorption of calcium. Since milk is a source of calcium, this is one reason Milk is fortified with Vitamin __.
  19. 1. Sunlight on skin can create Vitamin __
  20. Deficiency vitamin ?
    1. Rickets –children develop BOWED LEGS because they are unable to mineralize newly forming bone material, a rubbery protein matrix
    2. Osteomalacia – adults
  21. Vitamin __ Functions
    1. Acts as an Antioxidant –will protect cell membrane
  22. Deficiency
    1. Premature babies do not have adequate supply of Vitamin
    ____. This leads to anemia because of red blood cell breakage/rupture
    (erythrocyte hemolysis).
    Vit E
  23. Vitamin ___
    1. Required for production and maintenance of collagen Collagen is chief protein (base) of connective tissue.Collagen acts like "cement", holds cells together.
    2. Antioxidant
    3. Promotes resistance to infection (note: Large doses of Vitamin ____ do not prevent or cure the common cold)
    4. Helps with iron absorption
  24. ___________ provides: Support to capillaries (prevents bruises, prevents hemorrhage) Scar tissue to close wounds Mends bones that are broken
  25. 1. Bleeding gums, loose teeth, bruising, pinpoint hemorrhages, anemia, and wounds do not heal (most symptoms due to breakdown of collagen)

    what is this called
    and what vit def is it?
    • scurvy
    • Vitamin C
  26. what did they call saliers who had to have lime juice everyday because they had a deff in vit c and they would die of scurvy if they didnt have it?
  27. ______ B__
    1. Part of coenzyme for energy metabolism
    2. Important for nervous system and appetite
    thiamin B1
  28. deficiency – Beriberi WHAT VITAMIN?

    5. Edema, Confusion, loss of reflexes

    6. Beriberi – Filipino word (Philippines) for “I can’t, I can’t”-
    meaning person cannot move; muscle loss and damage to nerves

    7. Began in Far East, when the country changed from whole grain rice to refined rice
    8. Today in developed countries, a thiamin deficiency occurs in Alcoholics. It is called the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
  29. Deficiency - __________
    1. Four D’s of ___________
    a. Dermatitis – inflammation of the skin
    b. Diarrhea
    c. Depression
    d. Death
    2. Today - alcoholics
  30. __________ Functions
    1. Part of coenzyme for energy metabolism
    2. Promotes health of nervous system, digestion system
  31. _____________ B__
    1. Part of coenzyme for energy metabolism
    2. Good vision, healthy skin
    Riboflavin . B2
  32. ___________ . B_
    Deficiency – Ariboflavinosis
    1. skin rash, cracks at mouth.

    Most of the _______ in our food intake is from enriched grains and foods in the Milk Group
    Riboflavin . B2
  33. ________
    1. Part of coenzyme for new cell synthesis – (Red blood cells and Cells lining GI tract duplicate frequently – short life span)
  34. Deficiency OF WHAT VITAMIN

    1. Anemia
    2. Folate deficiency in pregnancy, increases the risk of a birth defect in Infants called Neural Tube Defects.
  35. 3. Low intakes of_______ _______ AND Vitamin ___ & Vitamin ____ are associated with high
    • blood levels of an amino acid called homocysteine.
    • This high level of homocysteine increases risk for heart attack and stroke.
  36. ______ acid is the term used for the synthetic form of the vitamin found in supplements and added to foods.
  37. The synthetic form, Folic acid, is better absorbed by the body than folate.
  38. 6. What is a non-food source of vitamin K?
  39. 7. Which foods are rich in B-carotene?
    is found in vegetables and fruits – Orange or muddy green colored
  40. 8. What is the function of vitamin K?
    Necessary for synthesis of blood clotting proteins
  41. 9. What is a non-food source of vitamin D?
  42. 10. What vitamin can only be found in animal products (meat / dairy products)?
  43. 11. Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor and acid from the stomach to be absorbed?
  44. 12.Which nutrients function in the body as antioxidants?
    beta-carotene, Vitamin C, and Vitamin E
  45. Smoking increases oxidative stress and metabolic turnover of Vitamin __
    Increased need for Vitamin C
  46. 13.What is a precursor?
    Vitamin precursors in foods are transformed into active vitamins by the body.
  47. •Smokers and Tobacco chewers have Higher Dietary Reference Intakes
    (DRI) for Vitamin __ than nonsmokers. (Remember during your Diet
    Analysis project, you were asked if you were a smoker or nonsmoker.
    This was to determine your DRI for Vit. ___)
  48. Which of the energy-yielding nutrients is most satiating?
  49. Which of these theories of obesity involves the body "choosing" a weight that it wants to be?
    Set point
  50. What is the current DRI for exercise?
    60 minutes of walking a day
  51. incompletely broken down ______ molecules are combined to form ketones
  52. Which of these is considered a reasonable rate (not too fast but not exceedingly slow) of weight loss for an overweight person?
    10 of body weight in 12 months
  53. _______ is a hormone that suppresses appitite,
  54. _________released by stomach stimulates eating
  55. ______________- an opiate that may enhance the desire to eat.
  56. _________ is a losT of body tissue that accompanies certain diseases
  57. From a hormonal perspective, the stomach secretes the appetite stimulate ghrelin; the less stomach, the less ghrelin secreted THIS WOULD CAUSE A ________ APPETITE.
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