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  1. a mutualistic symbiosis occurs between ruminant animals and ___
  2. Define ensiling
    the process of producing silage
  3. define Silage
    preservation of livestock feed by adding microorganisms.
  4. Microorganisms feed on (____) starches and simple sugar in the livestock feed producing _____
    ferment, lactic acid
  5. A build-up of ____ causes a very acidic environment to develop and prevents further microbial growth and prevents further breakdown of livestock feed
    lactic acid
  6. purpose of composting and Ensiling
    • Composting: breakdown of organic matter
    • Ensiling: preservation of livestock feed
  7. microorganisms used in composting and Ensiling
    • Composting: aerobic, thermophilic microbes used
    • Ensiling: anaerobic, thermophilic microbes used
  8. what does Fermentation result in for composting and Ensiling
    • Composting: Fermentation increases temp in the middle of the compost.
    • Ensiling: Fermentation increases the temp in the middle of the silage producing lactic acid
  9. Products of the process of composting and Ensiling
    • Composting: fermentation products are organic nutrients
    • Ensiling: fermentation products help slow/stop further degradation.
  10. what causes Crown Gall Disease
    Agrobacterium tumefaciens, because it contains tumor inducing (Ti) plasmid
  11. How do we use Agrobacterium tumerficiens to genetically engineer plants
    using RE to cut Ti, ligase to add GOI, which allows GOI to develop in plants
  12. 6 examples of EG agricultural products
    • 1) Herbicide-resistant crops
    • 2) salt-tolerant tomatoes
    • 3) Insecticide-producing crops
    • 4) FlavrSavr tomatoes
    • 5) Golden Rice
    • 6) Veggie Vaccines
  13. What company and what products are at the center of genetic modification of plants debate?
    Monsanto: produces soybeans, alfalfa, corn, cotton, and sugar beats.
  14. How is Bacillus thuringiensis involved with GM crop plants?
    Insecticide-producing crops use Crystal GOI from B. thuringiensis to produce plants that kill insects.
  15. What nutrient was added to rice which is normally not present in rice, and how could the addition be beneficial
    Beta-carotene is a precorsor to vitamin A, which is important for vision and development
  16. 3 things fermentation produces
    • 1) alcohol
    • 2) acids
    • 3) carbon dioxide
  17. 3 things fermentation is used to do
    • 1) production/preservation
    • 2) flavor
    • 3) nutrition
  18. Beer/wine requires the microorganism ___ to ___
    fungi to ferment
  19. Leavened bread requires ___ for fermentation
  20. pickled food requires _____ for fermetnation
    lactic acid bacteria
  21. Dairy products requires the microorganism ___ for fermentation
    lactic acid bacteria
  22. 3 food born disease barriers? AKA what do they have to do to cause disease?
    • 1) getting inside your body
    • 2) getting past your stomach
    • 3) stay inside your body
  23. Food born infection requires
    microorganism needs to survive in food, survive through the stomach and remain inside the intestines to establish an infection.
  24. 4 characteristics of E. coli O157:H7
    • 1) facultative anaerobe
    • 2) acid-reisistant
    • 3) mesophile
    • 4) toxin-producing
  25. How do the characteristics of E. coli O157:H7 contribute to its ability to cause disease?
    It can survive many environments.
  26. Food born illness AKA food born intoxication with botulism toxin is caused by
    Clostridium botulinum
  27. 5 characteristics of Clostridium botulinum
    • 1) aerobic
    • 2) non-acidophilic
    • 3) mesophilic
    • 4) endospore forming
    • 5) toxin producing
  28. Cause of intoxication and infection
    • Intoxication: consumption of a toxin
    • Infection: consumption of living organims
  29. time to disease for intoxication and infection
    • Intoxication: 2-6 hours
    • Infection: slow, due to incubation period (days to weeks).
  30. treatment for intoxication and infection
    • Intoxication: anti-toxins: only for life-threatening toxins
    • Infection: antibiotics: usually effective
  31. What does CSCC stand for
    Clean, Separate, Cook, Chill for food handling.
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mb 230 4-4
mb 230 4-4
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