Bio 104 Protists

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  1. Symbiosis
    • An ecological relationship with two species.
    • The smaller is the symbiont and the larger is the host. The 3 types are mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism.
  2. Explain the types of symbiosis
    -In mutualism, both symbiotic organisms benefit

    • -In commensalism, one organism benefits while neither harming nor helping the other
    • in any significant way

    • -In parasitism, an organism called a parasite harms but does not kill its host
    • -Parasites
    • that cause disease are called pathogens
  3. Protist
    • A unicellular eukaryotic organism that does not belong to plants, animals, or fungi species.
    • Some species are colonial. Reproduce asexually or sexually.
  4. Which 2 organelles came from endosymbiosis
    Mitochondria came from aerobic prokaryotes and plastids came from photosynthetic cyanobacterium.
  5. What are the 5 main supergroups of eukaryotes.
    • Excavata
    • Chromalveolata
    • Rhizarians
    • Archaeplastidas
    • Unikonta
  6. Properties if Excavates
    • Feeding groove and a cytoskeleton. 
    • Example: diplomands have modified mitochondria called mitosomes. Have 2 nuclei and multiple flagella
  7. Properties if Chromalveolata
    • originated by a secondary endosymbiosis event the proposed endosymbiont is a red alga.
    • Alveolata have alveoli which are membrane bound sacs and have genes similar to red algae.
  8. Rhizarians
    • Are linked together by DNA evidence.
    • -radiolarians are made of silica and use pseudopodia to engulf microorganisms though phagocytosis. Radiates from a central body.
  9. Archaeplastida
    • -Includes some land plants and algae. Descended from a photosynthetic organism. 
    • Green algae and red algae are descended from chlorophytes.
  10. Alteration of Generations
    The alternation of multicelluar haploid and diploid forms. Heteromorphic generations are structurally different, while isomorphic generations look similar.
  11. Unikonta
    Unclear when they separated from other groups. Includes amoebozoans and opisthokonts (animals, fungi, and related protists). Contains many slime molds.
  12. Examples of ecological relationships of protists
    Some of them are symbiotic. Hypermastigotes digest cellulose in the gut of termites. 

    Some protists are parasitic. Plasmodium causes malaria

    Many protists are important producers that obtainenergy from the sun
  13. Endosymbiosis
    When an organism engulfs another and instead of devouring it, breaks down the membrane and uses it for purposes (usually ATP production). Over time the DNA for both organisms is shared as one. There can also be an secondary stage with the primary organism being devoured.
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Bio 104 Protists
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