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  1. pulmonary ventilation
    Movement of air into and out of the respiratory tract.
  2. pneumothorax
    the presence of air or gas in the cavity between the lungs and the chest wall, causing collapse of the lung
  3. respiratory distress syndrome
    hyaline membrane disease - deficiency of surfactant.
  4. bronchitis
    mucus gland produce excessive secretion of mucus
  5. emphysema
    elastic tissue in lung and alveoli is obstructed
  6. bronchial asthma
    narrowing of bronchial tree.
  7. compliance
    expandability, the ability of certain organs to tolerate changes in volume; indicates the presence of elastic fibers and smooth muscles.
  8. cystic fibrosis
    An inherited condition, cystic fibrosis affects the cells that produce mucus, sweat and digestive juices. These secreted fluids are normally thin and slippery. But in cystic fibrosis, a defective gene causes the secretions to become thick and sticky. Instead of acting as a lubricant, the secretions plug up tubes, ducts and passageways, especially in the lungs and pancreas.
  9. atelectasis
    partial or complete collapse of the lung.
  10. spirometry
    measures ventilation/ the air capacity of the lungs.
  11. tidal volume
    amount of air breath in and out in a single respiratory cycle.
  12. vital capacity
    the greatest volume of air that can be expelled from the lungs after taking the deepest possible breath.
  13. Boyle’s law
    the principle that, for relatively low pressures, the pressure of an ideal gas kept at constant temperature varies inversely with the volume of the gas P = 1/V.
  14. Henry’s law
    amount of gas that dissolves in water is determined by its solubility in water and  its partial pressure in air
  15. Pleura
    serous membrane; consists of visceral pleura = lines the rib cage, parietal pleura = covers the outer surface of the lungs.
  16. Surfactant
    to lower the surface tension at the air/liquid interface within the alveoli of the lung.
  17. dorsal and ventral respiratory nuclei
    inspiratory center (DRG) quiet or forced. expiratory center (VRG) forced breathing.
  18. C-shaped cartilage of trachea
    prevent trachea from collapsing and they keep the trachea open for air to come in and out.
  19. Epiglottis
    a blade-shaped flap of tissue, reinforced by cartilage, that is attached to the dorsal and superior surface of the thyroid cartilage, folds over the entrance to the larynx during swallowing.
  20. dust cell
    a pulmonary macrophage that takes up and eliminates foreign particles introduced into the lung alveoli with inspired air.
  21. cilia
    Tiny hairs called cilia protect the nasal passageways and other parts of the respiratory tract, filtering out dust and other particles that enter the nose with the breathed air. As air is inhaled, the cilia move back and forth, pushing any foreign matter (like dust) either toward the nostrils, where it is blown out, or toward the pharynx, where it travels through the digestive system and out with the rest of the body's waste.
  22. goblet cell
    a column-shaped cell found in the respiratory and intestinal tracts, which secretes the main component of mucus.
  23. 3. Explain how pressure gradients (Boyle’s law) cause air to flow into and out of the lungs.
    Lung elasticity - gives the lung recoil so it can move air Smooth muscle - gives structure to the lower lung structures Diaphragm and external intercostal muscles - increase and decrease thoracic cavity volume, thus inducing air flow.
  24. 4. Describe factors that affect O2 unloading (shift to right) to tissues.
    As pH drops, saturation declines, which means more O2 will be released into the tissues. Bohr effect- CO2 is primary compound responsible for Bohr effect. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the reaction of CO2 with H2O molecules into H2CO3 (carbonic acid), which dissociates into H+ (hydrogen ion) and HCO-3 (bicarbonate ion). The H+ generated diffuse out of RBC and plasma pH drops.Metabolic pathway, glycolysis, generate 2,3-BPH- the higher the BPH, the greater the release of O2 by Hb molecules, improves O2 delivery to tissues.
  25. 5. Discuss why a foreign bother will tend to lodged into the right bronchus?
    Aspiration/ Taking a breath take place most likely in the right bronchus. The right bronchus has wide diameter and more straight. Left bronchus has a narrow diameter and an obtuse.
  26. 6. Discuss how aging process affect the respiration.
    In aging there is usually a gradual INCREASE in the compliance of the lung tissue (i.e. a decrease in tissue elasticity). This means that the lung is more easily distended but then has more difficulty in recoiling to it's original state and so exhalation can become difficult. The compliance of the chest wall is decreased in aging, and respiratory muscles weaken, adding to this effect.
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