
Throughput
Rate at which system generates money through sales

Continuous Flow Mfg. (CFM)
 1. One piece flow at a rate determined by the customer
 2. Smooth and uninterrupted flow

PokaYoke
Eliminating possible errors; forgetfulness, misunderstanding, identification, willful errors, lack of standards, indadvertant errors.

KanbanPull
 1. A method of material control.
 2. A kanban card will give permission for the next operation to produce more parts.

MultiVari Analysis
 Chart to track variables like pr., temp, thk, customer complaints, etc at varying intervals.
 Variations within piece, piecetopiece and timetotime can be spotted.
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Seven Classical Wastes (MUDA)
 1. Overproduction
 2. Inventory
 3. Rework/Rejects
 4. Motion
 5. Processing
 6. Waiting
 7. Transport

Andon Board
 1. Visual control device  shows current state of production, indicates problems, etc
 Green  No problems
 Yellow  Situation needs assistance
 Red  Pdn. stopped

5S
 1. Seiri  Sort  Get rid of what's not needed. (How often you use it?)
 2. Seiton  Set in order  Organize, put in order and make things easy to find and use.
 3. Seiso  Shine  Clean, repair and fix.
 4. Seiketsu  Standardize  Standardize the new orderliness (checklists, photos, videos, etc)
 5. Shitsuke  Sustain  Discipline to follow the new stds.

Affinity Diagram
 Tool to organize complex info. into logical categories

A3 Reports
 Concise summary of a project on a single sheet of paper
 1. Uses concise wordings
 2. Uses charts to illustrate points
 3. Restricts to 34 bullets per section
 4. Provides substance, not fluff.

Business Case
 A short summary of the strategic reasons for the project.
 1. Design of a new project/process
 2. Redesign of existing projects/process

Project Charter  Uses
 Team is aware of the project goals and boundaries
 Team will remain focussed on goals
 Team will work in alignment with the organization's goals
 Team champion will support the team and their goals

Spagetti Diagram
 Describing the flow of people, information or material in almost any type of process.

Pull Value (Value of the Pull System)
 1. Cycle time reduction
 2. Reduction in finished inventory
 3. Reduction in WIP
 4. Order stabilization by customers
 5. Pricing stabilization

Kano Model/Analysis
 1. Dissatisfiers (Basic reqmts., "must be")
 2. Satisfiers (variable reqmts., "more is better")
 3. Delighters (latent reqmts.)

Critical To Quality (CTQ) tree
 Focuses on key metrics of customer satisfaction

Voice of Customer (VOC)
 Enables the organization to:
 1. Make decisions on products and services
 2. Identify product features and specs.
 3. Focus on improvmenet plans
 4. Develop baseline metrics
 5. Identify customer satisfaction drivers

Pareto Diagram
 Prioritize problems based on their frequency of occurance
 "Vital Few" and "Trivial Many"
 20% 80%


Process Capability Studies
(Results)
 1. Do Nothing: Process limits within spec. limits
 2. Change Spec: If customer agrees
 3. Center the process: If process spread matches spec. spread, but with a shift
 4. Reduce Variability: DOE used to find variations
 5. Accept the losses: Handle scrap and rework efficiently

Histogram
 Bar graphs giving the distribution of data, used to find mean, median, std. deviation, etc.

Sensitivity
Measure of the smallest change in measurand that can be sensed by the msmt. device

Resolution
Smallest msmt. change that can be represented by the display of the msmt. device

Repeatability
 1. Measure of the ability of the msmt. process to repeatedly get the same results keeping all factors same.
 2. Same gage and same operator

Precision
 1. Repeatability and reproducibility
 2. Describes how close successive msmt. results fall when repeated.

Reproducibility
 1. Measure of ability of msmt. process to obtain same results under varying conditions.
 2. Same gage, different operators  gage reproducibility

Bias/Offset
Systematic difference between 2 successive msmts. of the same thing

Accuracy
 1. Degree of closeness of a msmt. to its true value
 2. Lack of bias

Data Coding
 1. Too many digits of the measured value
 2. Insensitivity due to rounding offs
 3. Errors due to entering of large sequence of data by operators. So:
 Code: X_{c }= X + C, Decode: X^{1}=X_{c}^{1} C and sigma = sigma_{c}
 X_{c} = X/f, Decode: X^{1 }= X_{c }f and sigma = f x sigma_{c}

Measles/Concentration Charts
 1. Charts that utilize location data
 2. To answer the question 'where'.

Takt Time
 Takt Time = Available pdn. time / Rate of customer demand
 It is the beat/rythm of the process.

Six Sigma
A business mgmt. strategy that seeks to improve the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of errors and variablilty in the processes.

DMAIC
DefineMeasureAnalyzeImproveControl

DMADV
DefineMeasureAnalyzeDesignVerify

6σ (Meaning)
 If one has 6 std. deviations b/w the process mean and the nearest spec. limit, practically no item fails to meet specs. At the max. such a process can have 3.4 defects per million in the long run.

5 Whys
 Root Cause Analysis:
 Car not starting  Battery Dead  Alternator not working  Belt Broken  Old  No Maintenance

Process Capability
Tells whether the process is capable of meeting the specs or not. Statistical methods are used to find the mean and std. deviation of the data histogram.

ANOVA
Analysis of Variance  tells whether the means of two or more groups of data are equal or not.

Gage R&R
Measure of repeatability and reproducability of msmt.

Regression
Helps in understanding how the value of the dependent variable changes with variation of any one of the independent variables, while maintaining all others fixed.

Correlation
 Indicates the strength and direction of a relationship b/w two random variables.

FMEA
Analysis of the potential failures within a system for classification by severity.

Contingency Tables
 Tables used to record and analyze the relationship b/w two or more 'categorical' variables.

Nonparametric Methods
 Methods used to conduct hypothesis tests of means of 'nonnormal' data.
 These methods are based on 'Rank Ordering' of the response.
 Softwares to conducts such tests are: Wilcoxon Sign Ranked test, etc

Sample Size Selection
Deciding on the number of data samples to be tested to have the results of the statistical analysis within a given confidence interval.

DOE
Conducting experiments to decide on the relationship b/w a dependent variable and independent variables by having various levels of the independent variables (factors) and monitoring the response of the system.


Push System
 Initiates pdn. in response to 'anticipated demand'
 It is a "ready or not, here I come" system. Ex: McDonalds

Pull System
 Initiates demand in response to 'present demand'.
 It is a "don't call me, I'll call you" system. Ex: Wendy's

Setup Time
The time b/w the 'last good piece' from the previous pdn. run and the 'first good piece' from the new pdn. run.

Six Shopfloor Losses
 1. Breakdowns
 2. Setups and adjustments
 3. Idling and minor stoppages
 4. Reduced speeds
 5. Quality defects and reworks
 6. Startup losses

5 Elements of Pdn
 1. Objects of pdn.  the products
 2. Agents of pdn.  the people making the products; tools, etc
 3. Methods  means by which actions are performed
 4. Space  where action is performed
 5. Time  how long action takes for completion

Pacemaker Process
 In supermarket pull systems, customer schedule is sent to only one pdn. process in the doortodoor value stream. This process is called the pacemaker process.


Supermarket
 When continuous flow is not possible due to very fast or very slow processes or other logistics issues, then a supermarket pull system is used to eliminate the need to schedule production for the processes that are not linked.
 Simply put, SM is the installation of a pull system where continuous flow is interrupted and the upstream process must still operate in a batch mode.

Pitch (VSM term)
Pitch time might be the time to produce the amount of material typically moved at one time, like one skid of material.

8D Problem Solving Technique
 Structured method emphasizing team synergy. "The team as a whole is better and smarter than the quality sum of the individuals.

1 Sample T Test
 a) Used to determine whether a population mean (u) is equal to a hypothesized value.
 b) Used with continuous data from a single random sample, normally distributed.

Confidence Interval
 CI is a range of likely values for a population parameter (say u) that is based on the sample data.
 CI quantifies the precision of the estimate.

Power Analysis
 Power is the ability of a test to detect a difference when one exists (Probability of rejecting Ho when its false)
 PA would answer one of these questions:
 How many samples are needed?
 Is the sample size good enough?
 How large a difference can be detected by the test?
 Are the results trustworthy?

2 Sample T Test
 Used to determine whether there is a statistical difference between two population means.
 Continuous data from 2 independent samples
 Seperate normality tests for each.

Paired T Test
 Used to determine whether there is a statistical difference b/w two paired populations.
 One element in common b/w samples
 Normality test for diff. b/w samples.

1Proportion Test
 Used to see what proportion of the population has defects.
 This test determines whether adequate evidence exists that the proportion of events (defects, etc) is different from a hypothesized value.
NOTE: Success/Reject data (as opposed to continuous msmts.). do not capture detailed info about the sampled parts, sample sizes are commonly large.

2 Proportions Test
A test of two proportions determines whether sufficient evidence exists that two proportions are different from one another.

Correlation
helps to compare two independent msmt systems so that we can eliminate either one if there is a sound correlation.

Simple Regression
 Helps in knowing how important is X in predicting Y.
 How would Y vary with X?

One Way Anova Test
 Generalization of a 2 sample T test.
 However, more than 2 groups of samples can be analyzed.
 Comparing means and variances between sample groups.

