2.10 Blood Clotting & grouping

  1. What 3 events happen when a blood vessel tears?
    -vessel constricts

    -platelets clump

    -coagulation of proteins to form a clot

  2. What is hemostasis?
    Stopping blood flow
  3. Homeostasis) vascular spasm (2)
    -initial phase to stop blood flow

    -short term
  4. Hemostasis) Vascular spasm, what happens?
    Contraction of vessel smooth muscle to try to stop the blood flow
  5. Hemostasis) what's the second step?
    platelet plug formation
  6. Hemostasis) Platelet plug formation: what would this be sufficient enough for?
    Small tears
  7. Hemostasis) Platelet plug formation: what activates the platelet?
    The tear of vessel results in collagen being exposed that activates platelets
  8. Hemostasis) Platelet plug formation: what 3 things does the platelet granules release?


  9. Hemostasis) Platelet plug formation: Thromboxane (2)
    -stimulates spasms

    -helps platelet adherence to wall of vessel
  10. Hemostasis) Platelet plug formation: ADP
    -encourages platelet adherence to the wall of torn vessel
  11. Hemostasis) Platelet plug formation: Serotonin
    -promotes spasms of blood vessels
  12. Hemostasis) Platelet plug formation: which is not secreted from the granules of platelet but is founded in external surface of platelets within plasma membrane?>
    Platelet factor 3
  13. Hemostasis) Platelet plug formation: what does platelet factor 3 do?
    -involved in clotting mechanism
  14. Hemostasis) what is phase 3?
  15. Hemostasis) coagulation: when is it used?
    For large tears
  16. Hemostasis) coagulation: what is it?
    Sequential activation of clotting factors that are proteins made up in liver that are numbered or named
  17. Hemostasis) coagulation: do these protein factors circulate in plasma?
    Yes they circulate while inactive and are only activated when blood vessel is torn
  18. Hemostasis) coagulation: which ion does it invoked in several steps?
  19. What aare the 3 steps of coagulation?
    -production of prothrombin activator

    -conversion of prothrombin to thrombin

    -fibrinogen converted to fibrin
  20. 3 steps of coagulation) what is prothrombin activator ?
    -globular protein that is an enzyme
  21. 3 steps of coagulation) what creates prothrombin activator?
    • Several PRO factors will clump together to form this
    • *these pro factors only clump together when it senses blood vessel torned
  22. 3 steps of coagulation) conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
    Performed by prothrombin activator
  23. 3 steps of coagulation) fibrinogen converted to fibrin
    Performed by thrombin
  24. What does the extrinsic pathway and intrinsic pathway eventually create?
    prothrombin activator
  25. 3 steps of coagulation) extrinsic pathway , activated by
    Tearing of extrinsic blood vessel walls
  26. 3 steps of coagulation) what does extrinsic pathway release? (2)
    tissue factor and VII factors
  27. 3 steps of coagulation) intrinsic pathway is activated by?
    Activation of intrinsic circulating factor XII
  28. 3 steps of coagulation) prothrombin, fibrinogen, and PRO factors are all...
    Circulating in blood and nothing happens till a vessel is torn
  29. Control of coagulation) what does anticoagulation phase do?
    Focus on removal of thrombin
  30. Control of coagulation) where is anticoagulation found in greatest concentration?
    At the outside of the clot bc they were stimulated by clot itself
  31. Control of coagulation) what is their main goal?
    To directly or indirectly inhibit the production of thrombin by inhibiting factors at different levels
  32. What does a mature clot have trapped within it
    -blood cells trapped

    -platelets that have aggregated and formed a matting

    -fibrin threads woven throughout

    -firm, stable structure attached to wall of blood vessel
  33. Clot retraction and dissolution) what do platelets contain that allow them to contract?
    • actomyosin
    • *contractile protein
  34. Clot retraction and dissolution) what occurs during this phase? (3)
    -platelets squeeze out serum using its contractile proteins

    -pulls edges together

    -PDGF assists in development/division of smooth muscle & rebuild of the wall vessel.
  35. What is PDGF?
    platelet derived growth hormone
  36. Fibrinolysis) Process (3)
    -Plasminogen in blood is activated by several factors including thrombin

    -Activated plasminogen becomes plasmin

    -plasmin breaks down fibrin clot
  37. Disorders of Hemostasis) thromboembolytic conditions :
    - a piece of clot, embolus, chips off the clot and travels downward to smaller vessel creating a blockage
  38. Disorders of Hemostasis) bleeding disorders : what does this prevent?
    Inability to clot
  39. Disorders of Hemostasis) bleeding disorders : thrombocytopenia
    -few platelets that lead to bigger bruising or hemorrhages
  40. Disorders of Hemostasis) bleeding disorders : impaired liver function
    Inability to form certain form factors that participate in the whole clotting process
  41. Disorders of Hemostasis) bleeding disorders : Hemophilia (2)

    -deficiency of certain factors
  42. Blood grouping) what are antigens?
    Stimulates the immune system that are embedded in plasma of RBCs
  43. Blood grouping) What does type A blood signify?
    A antigen
  44. Blood grouping) What does type B blood signify?
    B antigen
  45. Blood grouping) what does Type AB signify?
    Both A and B antigen
  46. Blood grouping) what does type O signify?
    Neither of A & B
  47. Transfusions) Antibodies: Type A
    Has anti B antibodies
  48. Transfusions) Antibodies: type B
    Has anti A antibodies
  49. Transfusions) Antibodies: type O
    Has anti A and B antibodies
  50. Transfusions) Antibodies: Type AB?
    Has none of the antibodies
  51. What is Rh blood?
    • Another type of antigen
    • * "D" antigen
  52. What does Rh+ signify
    If antigen Rh is present
  53. What does Rh- signify?
    That Rh is not present
  54. If mother is Rh- and baby is Rh+ have potential for?
    hemolytic disease of the newborn at second pregnancy
  55. How do they combat issues with mother being Rh- and baby being rh+?
    They give the mother rhogam that masks d-antigen to prevent development of antibodies for Rh+
  56. Diagnostic blood tests) Type and crossmatch
    Tests for blood type
  57. Diagnostic blood tests) complete blood count (4)
    -RBC count

    -hemoglobin measurement

    -hematocrit measurement

    -white blood cell count and differential
  58. Diagnostic blood tests) Complete blood count: RBC count
    # RBC /mm3
  59. Diagnostic blood tests) Complete blood count: hemoglobin measurement
    hgb (g)/ 100 ml blood
  60. Diagnostic blood tests) Complete blood count: hematocrit measurement
    • % of total blood volume that is RBCs
    • *average 38-54%
  61. Diagnostic blood tests) Complete blood count: white blood cell count and differential
    • Counts how many WBC and how many of each type
    • *normally 5000-10,000/mm3 & Ncytes
  62. Diagnostic blood count tests) Clotting factors (4)

    -prothrombin time

    -partial thromboplastin time

    -blood chemistry
  63. Diagnostic blood count tests) prothrombin time
    How fast extrinsic pathway is activated
  64. Diagnostic blood count tests) blood chemistry
    • Electrolytes
    • *Na, k, CA, nitrogen, choelsterol
Card Set
2.10 Blood Clotting & grouping
Blood clotting & grouping