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Process of heavy metals present in soil that can naturally cause high levels of acidity formation of soluble heavy metals.
Acid Rock Drainage (ARD)
____ can increase the rate of soluble heavy metal ion formation and increase acidity in both ARD and AMD.
3 parts of mining
- 1) ores are unbaried
- 2) chemicals or bacteria are added for leaching or bioleaching.
- 3) metals are smelted to remove remaining impurities.
Process of using microorganisms to pull out the precious metals from ore samples.
Acid drainage is when
heavy metals in soils become oxidized and produce acids and soluble heavy metal ions
what 2 things does acid rock drainage cause
- 1) acids
- 2) heavy metal ions.
Most common bacterium involved in Acid Rock Drainage (ARD), Acid Metaliferous Drainage (AMD), and Bioleaching is
using microorganisms to clean up pollution.
Bioremediatio of Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) and Acid Metaliferous Drainage (AMD) involves __________ which causes heavy metals to become insoluble reducing acidity and heavy metal concentrations in water
most common bacterium in Bioremediation sulfur-reducing bacteria groups
the removal of PCBs (polycholinated Biphenols by Dehalococcoides ethenogenes is another form of ___
Radioactivity removed by the sulfur-reducing bacteria, possibly Deinococcus radiodurans, would be another form of
Petroleum oil removed by oil-degrading bacteria can cause ____and ______ as an undesirable side effect
algal bloom/ eutrophication
The most dangerous contamination of water is _____ and ____ present in _____.
Fecal contamination and pathotens present in fecal mater.
What is Eutrophication
Death of waterway
How does Eutrophication occur
4 detailed descriptions
- 1) Nitrogen added to system: sewage, fertilizers/nitriogen-rich compounds
- 2) Algae bloom, then die off: produces toxins
- 3) bacterial bloom develops uses all oxygen.
- 4) plants and animals die from a lack of oxygen.
Generally, how does eutrophication occur?
influx of excessive nutrients
what causes Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning
toxins from red tide.
What are the 2 most dangerous contaminants of water, and how are they detected?
Fecal contamination and pathogens are detected with indicator organisms.
What 4 traits must indicator organisms have?
- 1) Easily distinguishable
- 2) Easily detected (rapid test)
- 3) Associated with pathogen
- 4) Able to survive in a way similar to pathogen.
Fecal coliforms are
Indicator organisms which can tell us if there is presence of fecal contaminants in the water.
5 traits of Fecal Coliforms and what they help accomplish.
- 1) Facultative anaerobes
- 2) Gram negative bacilli
- 3) Ferment lactose at 35 degrees C
- - Produce acid and gas during fermentation
- 4) Indicator organisms for fecal contamination of water.
- 5) EPA standard: Zero coliforms present in 100 ml of water sample
How are coliforms similar to E. coli?
Tests for coliform will also test for E. coli (indicator and pathogenic E. coli).
What does wastewater treatment do?
removes waste from water
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) is a way to tell how dirty the oxygen is.
2 factors of indicating dirty water?
1) Amount of oxygen required by the microorganisms in the water to breakdown organic matter.
2) the more organic matter, the more microbes, the more oxygen being used and the less oxygen present in the water. (more microbes=less oxygen).
What does low BOD mean?
low organic waste or matter
what does high organic waste mean?
polluted w/organic matter
How is BOD calculated
by measuring and subtracting the oxygen present in the water (DO: dissolved oxygen). before initial incubation and 5 days after incubation.
formula for calculating BOD
DOinitial DO5 days =BOD
3 steps of primary treatment
- 1) Sewage/Wastewater filtered and placed in primary settling tank.
- 2) Primary sludge removed and digested by anaerobic microorganisms.
- 3) liquid portion (primary) moved to the secondary treatment phase
4 steps in secondary treatment phase
- 1) liquid portion from primary treatment mixed with aerobic microorganisms in the bioreactor.
- 2) The active biomass moved to the secondary settling tank.
- 3) Active sludge removed and sent one of two places.
- 4) Liquid portion (secondary stage) is moved to the final stage if it contains only 10% BOD
What 2 places could the active sludge be moved in the secondary treatment phase?
- 1) concentrated sludge is sent back to the anaerobic microorganism primary sludge tank.
- 2) diluted sludge is sent back through the secondary treatment.
What does BOD stand for
Biochemical oxygen demand
Waste water from the second Tertiary Treatment undergoes _____ & ____ to remove nitrogen
Nitrification & denitrification
The second part of Tertiary treatment chemically treats water with ____ and releases it into waterways
2 parts of Tertiary treatment?
- 1) nitrification and denitrification use bacteria to remove nitrogen.
- 2) chemically treated with Chlorination