Lab Exam #2 Clinical Correlations

  1. is a form of senile demential (loss of memory and intellectual abilities) first described in 1906 by a German doctor. It interferes with metabolic processes that maintain the health of neurons in the cerebrum. As a result it causes a progressive loss of neurons and atrophy of the brain. Additionally, two abnormal structures occur in the brains of those affected: (1) amyloid plaques, made from the toxic peptide beta-amyloid, are found deposited in the spaces between neurons, and (2) Neurofibrillary tangles, twisted threads of proteins, are found within neurons. The tangles are made from a defective version of the tau protein, which normally functions to stabilize microtubules within neurons.
    Alzheimer's Disease
  2. is an abnormal growth of tissue in the brain that can be malignant or benign. Larges ones can cause damages to the structures by compressing them or can block the flow of cerbrospinal fluid in either case there may be increased intracranial pressure. The most common malignant tumors are secondary one that metastasize from other places. Primary ones usually develop from abnormal growth of glial cells, and not from neurons.
    Brain Tumors
  3. occurs when the blood supply to a portion of the brain is interrupted, either by clogging of an artery or rupture of an artery wall in the brain. This compromises the oxygen and nutrient supply and damages brain tissue. These often affect branches of the middle cerebral artery. Symptoms may include inability to speak and sensory deficits or paralysis on the side of the body opposite from this.
    Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) or Stroke
  4. is an injection of an anesthetic into the epidural space around the spinal cord. They are often used to control pain during childbirth by clocking the transmission of the impulses through spinal nerves.
    epidural block
  5. is an increase in intracranial pressure due to blockage of circulation of cerebrospinal fluid, either within the brain's ventricles or in the subarachnoid space. In babies whose fontanels have yet to close, the head can swell in response to the pressure. In children and adults it cannot, so the condition is life-threating because the brain can be crushed. Excess CSF can be drained by placement of a shunt into a lateral ventricle that diverts the CSF to the blood or abdominal cavity
  6. is a procedure in which a long needle is inserted through the skin, vertebral ligaments, and meninges into the subarachnoid space for the purpose of withdrawing cerebrospinal fluid for analysis, measuring CSF pressure, or administering an anesthetic. It is usually done between L-3 and L-4 or L-4 and L-5 vertebrae since there is little risk of damaging the spinal cord here.
    Lumbar puncture
  7. is inflammation of the meninges caused by a bacterium or virus. Symptoms can include fever, headache, vomiting, and a stiff neck. It is the most serious kind since it can produce coma and death. It can be acquired by direct contact with nasal or throat discharges from an infected person. It can be acquired by direct contact with nasal or throat discharges from an infected person. It can be treated with antibiotics and there are vaccines against some of the bacteria that cause it.
  8. is a disease that produces progressive destruction of the myelin sheaths that surround axons in the central nervous system. It appears that it is an autoimmune disease that destroys myelin sheaths and leaves hardened plaques in their place. The plaques interfere with the normal transmission of nerve impulses and common symptoms include muscle weakness, abnormal sensation, and vision problems
    Multiple Sclerosis
  9. occurs when the spinal cord is damaged in the thoracic or lumbar region resulting in paralysis of both lower limbs
  10. occurs when the spinal cord is damaged in the cervical region, resulting in paralysis of all four limbs
  11. is a progressive disorder of the brain's motor system, affecting the basal nuclei. Dopamine-releasing neurons that project from the substantia nigra to the lentiform nucleus degenerated in this condition. Since this affects motor planning activities, symptoms include trembling of the hands, legs, and face, stiffness of the limbs and trunk, slowness of movement, and poor balance and motor coordination
    parkinson's disease
  12. is a disease caused by the poliovirus that can produce fever, headaches, muscle pain and weakness, and loss of reflexes. In serious cases, this destroys the cell bodies of motor neurons in the spinal cord and cranial nerve nuclei in the brainstem. This can produce paralysis and even death from respiratory and heart failure. The vaccine have nearly eradicated it in the US, but outbreaks still occur worldwide.
    Poliomyelitis (Polio)
  13. is a congenital disorder of the neural tube that causes absence of the vertebral arches. In serious cases, the meninges or spinal cord ma protrude through the defect in the vertebral column into a skin-covered sac. Kinking of the spinal cord can produce paralysis of the lower limbs and loss of bladder and bowel control.
    Spina Bifida
  14. is a loss of smell. It can be associated with infections of the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses or head trauma that fractures the cribriform plate. Damage to the cribriform plate can also cause leakage of cerebrospinal fluid into the nasal cavity and out of the nose called rhinorrhea. People with this condition also complain of loss of, or change in, their ability to taste.
  15. is unilateral paralysis of the muscle supplied by the facial nerve-most prominently the muscles of facial expression. Perhaps the most problematic symptom is inability to close the eyes even while sleeping. It is often caused by swelling of the facial nerve within the temporal bone due to a viral infection. Other symptoms may include loss of taste, increased sensitivity to loud noises, and decreased salivation.
    Bell's Palsy
  16. is a muscle weakness or paralysis and/or loss of sensation in the upper limb caused by an injury to the brachial plexus. There are many types of this condition, but they are usually categorized as those affecting the upper trunk and those affecting the lower trunk.
    Brachial Plexus Palsy
  17. is the most well-known palsy of infants caused by stretching or tearing of the upper trunk during delivery of an infant. Large babies or babies presenting in a difficult position for delivery are at risk.
    ERB's Palsy
  18. is administration of an anesthetic agent to block pain during dental procedures. Branches of the trigeminal nerve are important to dentist since CN V is the major sensory nerve of the head, including the teeth and mucous membranes of the mouth.
    Dental Anesthesia
  19. anesthetizes the lower teeth as well as the lower lip and chin. In this procedure, the anesthetic injection is done through the mouth on the medial side of the mandible around the opening of the mandibular foramen.
    Alveolar nerve block
  20. Is a viral infection of the spinal ganglia of spinal nerves. it caused by the varicella zoster virus that causes chicken pox. Following infection with the V-Z virus, it can lie dormant in the spinal ganglia. If the virus is reactivated, these are characterized by painful unilateral rashes with fluid-filled vesicles along the course of a spinal nerve's sensory distribution. Anyone who has had chickenpox is at risk of getting it and the virus is contagious
    Herpes Zoster (Shingles)
  21. is the general term for "nerve pain" usually sharp, throbbing pain that follows the distribution of a nerve. There can be a myriad of causes of it such as infection, compression, inflammation, trauma, or disease such as diabetes. Often times the cause is unknown.
  22. episodes of severe, shooting, burning pain localized in areas of the face supplies by CN V, such as cheek, chin, lips, or forehead. Pain can be triggered by eating, drinking, shaving or simply stoking the face. It may be due to processes of aging or specifically caused by tumors that compress CN V or its branches
    Trigeminal Neuralgia
  23. is a feeling of "pins and needles" such as when a part of the body "falls asleep." it can be a chronic condition due to a disease or occur temporarily due to nerve compression.
  24. is done to provide pain relief during the later stages of childbirth when the lower vagina and perineum are stretched by presentation of the baby's head. Anesthetic injection can be done through the vaginal wall near the spine of the ischium or through the skin of the perineum near the ischial tuberosity.
    pudendal nerve block
  25. is pain that radiates along the course of the sciatic nerve from the buttock down the posterior thigh. It may be accompanied by paresthesia and muscle weakness. It is usually a symptom of some other disorder that compresses the sciatic nerve or the anterior rami that form it, such as a herniated intervertebral disc or spasm/tightness of the piriformis muscle.
  26. are common injuries in contact sports such as football caused by violent stretching of the brachial plexus. This can occur when the head and neck are suddenly bent to one side or the upper limb is put in traction when blocking or tackling. Symptoms of it are pain, tingling, or burning sensations radiating from the neck into the shoulder and upper limb.
  27. is a rare condition in which the sympathetic nerve supply to the head is damaged. It can be caused by a tumor in the thorax or neck that destroy the sympathetic trunk or injury to a carotid artery in the neck that affects the nearby sympathetic nerves. Lack of sympathetics produces symptoms such as drooping eyelid due to paralysis of smooth muscles in the eyelid, a constricted pupil because the parasympathetic nerves to the iris are unopposed, and decreased or absent sweating in the face since sweat glands receive no innervation.
    Horner's Syndrome
  28. is a disorder of blood vessels supplying the skin. It most often affects the skin in the fingers and toes in young women. It cause is unclear, but it is likely produced by vasospasm of smooth muscles in the small blood vessels due to overstimulation of the muscle by the sympathetic system in response to cold temperatures. Symptoms include coolness of the skin, numbness, and discoloration. As circulation improves, the skin turns red and swollen and it throbs and tingles.
    Reynaud's Disease
  29. is one of the most common causes of dizziness and fainting. It can be produced by long periods of standing in which blood pools in the lower limbs and causes decreased blood return to the heart. Blood pressure receptors in the heart detect the lowered blood volume and reflexively stimulate the vagus nerves, which lower the heart rate and blood pressure. These autonomic phenomena can produce dizzy spells and fainting. Other triggers such as fear of injury, the sight of blood, heat exhaustion, or straining on the toilet can produce vasovagal syncope.
    Vasovagal syncope
  30. occurs when the retina progressively degenerates in the region of the macula. Victims of it cannot see objects that are straight ahead in their visual field but can see objects using their peripheral vision. It usually affects those older than 50 age is the greatest risk factor, but smoking is a risk factor too. The "dry" form of it is the most common and it involves destruction of cone cells in the macula over time. The dry from may progress to the "wet" form if abnormal leaky blood vessels develop deep to the macula fluid leakage can detach the macula from the rest of the retina and rapidly produce loss of vision
    Age-related macular disease
  31. is a disorder producing blurry vision because of irregular curvatures of the cornea or lens along the different meridians. As a consequence, the optical apparatus of the eye cannot focus a sharp image on the retina.
  32. is loss of transparency of the lens that produces a progressive loss of vision. The lens becomes cloudy due to structural changes in the lens proteins. It can be an age-related problem or can result form environmental factors or diseases such as diabetes. Sight can be restored in cataract patients by removal of the old lens and implantation of an artificial lens.
  33. is inflammation of the conjunctiva usually caused by a virus or bacterial. It is common in children and highly contagious. Bacterial conjunctivitis is treated with antibiotic eye drops.
  34. is a condition in which the pigmented layer and neural layer of the retina become separated by fludid that seeps between the layers, often following a blow to the head. Boxers are at high risk for it. Symptoms include sudden flashes of light and "floaters". Treatment may include sealing the layers together with a laser, freezing the retina, or injection of a gas bubble into the vitreous body to hold the layers of the retina together.
    Detached retina
  35. is a disease characterized by increased pressure within the anterior segment of the eyeball due to blockage or restriction in the outflow of aqueous humor through the scleral venous sinus. if untreated, pressure within the eye can damage the retina and produce blindness
  36. is a visual defe t in which one can see objects in the distance clearly, but objects that are nearby appear blurry. It may be due to a misshaped cornea or an eyeball that is shorter along the visual axis than normal. whatever the case, the image that should be precisely focused on the retina is focused posterior to the retina. This produces a fuzzy image for objects that are close to the eye.
  37. is the most commonly performed refractive surgery of the eye. It uses a laser to correct the curvature of the cornea for conditions such as nearsightedness, farsightedness and astigmatism.
  38. is a condition in which objects nearby can be seen clearly but objects that are far way appear blurry. It is a very common disorder that may linked to heredity. It is due to a misshapen cornea or an eyeball that is longer along the visual axis than normal. Images that would normally be focused sharply on the retina instead are focused anterior to the retina.
  39. is swelling of the optic disc due to increased pressure in the cranial cavity. Intracranial pressure rise can be due to tumors, infections, or hydrocephalus. The pressure is transmitted via the subarachnoid space to the optic disc since the optic nerve is surrounded by the same meningeal layers as the brain. Engorgement of retinal vessels result from it.
  40. is an age-related loss of lens elasticity that causes difficulty in focusing on objects that are nearby. It usually becomes noticeable in the mid-40s. People of this age may need to start wearing glasses to read and those who have previously worn glass may need bifocals for both near and far vision.
  41. is misalignment of the eyeball so that the visual axes are not parallel the eyes do not track in unison when viewing an object. The result is problems with depth perception and double vision. It is caused by poor coordination among the extraocular muscles in the orbit. This may be due to problems in the brain centers that control eye movement or a lesion of the muscles themselves or the cranial nerves that supply them.
  42. is significant or total loss of hearing.
  43. is caused by interference with the mechanisms that transmit sound waves through the external or middle ear. It may be due to physical blockage of the external acoustic meatus, inflammation of the tympanic membrane, or stiffening of the joints between the ossicles. Extra bone growth around the ossicles and oval window, called otosclerosis, can also produce this condition.
    Conduction deafness
  44. results from disease or injury to structures in the internal ear. This could be due to damages to the hair cells in the spiral organ or injection, tumors, or trauma of CN VIII or the pathways and nuclei in the brain associated with hearing.
    sensorineural deafness
  45. results from an increase in endolymph volume and subsequent rise in pressure within the membranous labyrinth. The cause is unknown but may involve blockages or narrowing of ducts within the the membranous labyrinth. Symptoms can included intermittent hearing loss, ringing in the ears and dizziness, nausea, and loss of balance. If untreated, total hearing loss can result over time.
    Meniere's Disease
  46. is a debilitating sensation of spinning or movement that occurs even when the head and body are stationary. It can produce nausea and vomiting. It is a symptom and not a specific disease. It can be produced by disorders of the internal ear, brain, or cerebellum, and overconsumption of alcohol.
  47. is inflammation of the mucous membranes in the middle ear due to viral or bacterial infection. Infections that produce sore throats can spread to the middle ear via the pharyngotympatic tube. It affects children more often because their pharyngotympanic tubes are more horizontally aligned, while those in adults are more vertical. Symptoms are swelling, fever, pain, and diminished hearing. If untreated, the infection can spread to other areas such as the mastoid air cells, nearby bone, the dura, and the cranial cavity. Chronic cases are treated with insertions of "tubes" through the tympanic membrane to help ventilate the tympanic cavity and drain fluid.
    Otitis Media
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Lab Exam #2 Clinical Correlations
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