What is Cellulitis?
an ACUTE bacterial infection of the dermis.
What is the patho/etiology of Cellulitis?
What is erysipelas?
Bacteria enters into the dermis via a break in the skin (cuts, puncture wounds, ulcer, athlete's foot, surgery).
Erysipelas is a form of cellulitis caused by streptococcus and contains raised edges.
What are Cellulitis's clinical manifestations?
What are its complications?
*localized redness, swelling, pain, fever (systemic).
- Complications include:
What are some (collaboration) nursing interventions and diagnostic tests with Cellulitis?
Decrease infection, prevent recurring cellulitis, promote comfort, and monitor change in size.
Tests involve a WBC and wound cultures.
What are some pharmacological and non-pharm therapies for cellulitis?
Use of antibiotics (to treat bacteria infect)
Elevate area (3-6 inches to reduce swelling and speed healing)
Warm compresses (q2 - 4h for pain relief)
What are the risk factors of getting cellulitis?
- weakened immune system
- skin conditions
- chronic swelling
- IV drug use
What is influenza?
a very contagious, viral infection of the nose, throat, and lungs.
Patho/Etiology of influenza.
What is the duration of the incubation period?
How can it be transmitted?
Transmitted by airborne droplet (cough, sneeze, talking) and direct contact (doorknob, etc.)
What are some differences between a cold and a flu?
Flu is usually onset while cold takes a long time. The flu has more severe symptoms.
What are the onset symptoms of the flu and the manifestations?
- non-productive cough
- soar throat
- Dry, non-productive cough/cracks
- Runny nose
What tests are done for someone with the flu?
- Clinical findings
- Viral culture
- Chest x-ray
What are the nursing interventions (implement) for someone with the flu?
Pharm and non-pharm therapies.
Which drugs are used for prophylaxis in ppl exposed but not vaccinated?
- Anti-viral drugs (~ivir).
- Amantadine/Rimantadine/oseltamivir (oral): prevent OR treat the flu; ppl who are NOT vaccinated.
*Rimantadine for >17 yo.
Non-pharm: bed rest, plenty of fluids.
What is the difference between endemic, epidemic, and pandemic?
Which is more common with the flu?
Endemic: a disease that exists permanently in a particular region or population.
Epidemic: outbreak, where transmission is easily transmitted from one person to another and is not permanently there (INFLUENZA)
Pandemic: over a large area, whole.
How can you explain to someone that they need a flu vaccine every year and who should receive them?
(i.e., compare "drift" vs "shift")
drift: (changes over time) infected person develops Ab against that virus. As antigenic changes accumulate, the Ab created against the older viruses no longer recognize the “newer” virus, and the person can get sick again (drift; flu B, C).
shift: a sudden, MAJOR change in Influenza A only since it infects more than just humans (e.g., H1V1 pandemic of 2009).
>6 months old and >65 yo should be vaccinated.
What are the risk factors for getting the flu?
- Young children
- >65 yo
- Weak immune system
- Chronic illness
How can you control the spread of infection while having the flu?
WASH YOUR HANDS!
Contain your cough & sneezes.
Who should not receive the flu vaccine?
Those who are allergic to: gelatin, antibiotics, eggs, or if you have a Hx of Guillan-Barr Syndrome (GBS).
After taking the flu vaccine, what s/sx must you contact to your HCP?
dizziness, vision changes, tinnitus, high fever, allergic reactions, behavior changes.
Which age range should receive the "Live-Attenuated-Influenza-Vaccine" (LAIV) nasal spray?
(different from inactivated and recombinant)
ages 2-49 yo.
What is the difference between the "inactivated/recombinant" flu vaccine compared to the "Live attenuated influenza vaccine"?
In/rec: injection that does NOT contain the influenza flu virus. Children >6 months - 18 yo and >50 yo.
LAIV: a nasal spray with "weakened" virus so it won't give you the flu. May be given to 2-49 yo.