Inflammatory Responses

  1. Five Cardinal Manifestations of Inflammation:
    • Warmth
    • Redness
    • Swelling
    • Pain
    • Decreased Function
  2. Stage I: Vascular Responses
    • Injured tissues and leukocytes secrete seratonin, histamine, kinins that constrict blood vessels and dilate arterioles causing redness and warmth in the tissues.
    • Blood flow increases (hyperemia) and edema forms at the site of injury or invasion. Increased blood flow also bring more nutrients to the injured tissue.
    • Capillary leak occurs - plasma leaks into tissues causing more swelling (protective as it forms a cushion. it also dilutes toxins and organisms in the area) and pain (protect the area from further injury by discouraging anymore stimulation).
    • Subsides in 24-48 hours.
  3. Stage II: Cellular Response
    • Increased numbers of neutrophils or Neutrophillia occurs.
    • Arachidonic acid (AA) cascade starts to increase the inflammatory response.
    • Fatty acids in plasma membranes converts into AA.
    • Enzymes including coozygenase converts AA into other chemicals that gets processed into the substances (histamine, seratonin leukotriens, prostaglandins and kinins) that continue the inflammatory response in the tissues.
    • Antiinflammatory drugs work by preveningt cycloozygenase from converting AA into inflammatory substance.
  4. Stage III: Repair and Replacement
    • WBC induce remaining healthy cells to divide.
    • In cells that cannot divide, WBC trigger new blood vessel growth (angiogenesis) and scar tissue formation.
Card Set
Inflammatory Responses
Inflammatory Responses