Theory of Knowledge

  1. Principles of Pseudoscience
    Who:  Glymour and Stalker


    1.      A coincidence

    2.      A purpose

    3.      Think Big

    4.      Even physics isn’t all the precise.

    5.      Science is numbers and gauges.

    6.      Saying no to nit-pickers.
  2. Diagnostic and Statistical
    Manual (DSM)
    • Who:
    •      American Psychiatric Association

    • What:
    • A book used to diagnose mental disorders.
  3. Pseudoscience Defined:
    Who: Hansen

    • What:
    •     Not scientific; part of a doctrine
    • whose major proponents try to create the impression that it represents the most
    • reliable knowledge on its subject matter.
  4. Unity-in-Diversity Paradox
    • Who:
    •      Hansen
    • What?    There is little
    • agreement on the criteria that distinguishes science form pseudoscience yet
    • there is wide agreement on specific cases of what is or is not pseudoscience.
    • Can't agree why they agree.
  5. Scientific Progress
    • Who:
    •      Shermer

    What:     Accumulative; testable
  6. Light Deflection
    • Who?
    •     Arthur Edington
    • What?    Phenomenon
    • confirmed during the 1919 solar eclipse. When light passes mass it moves. The
    • stars were in "different" spots during the eclipse because the light
    • from the stars passed the sun. Confirmed Einstein's theory of relativity.
  7. Falsifiability
    • Who?
    •     Popper
    • What?    A theory is
    • considered to be falsifiable if there are possible events that would prove the
    • theory wrong once and for all.
  8. Conventional Twist
    • Who?
    •     Popper
    • What? Failed prediction attempts are explained away. Ex:
    • 12-21-2012 Dec. 21, 2012
  9. Puzzle-solving
    • Who?     Kuhn
    • What?    Solving
    • anomalies that occur when scientists test themselves. According to Kuhn when
    • anomalies occur sciences strive to count for these anomalies using puzzle
    • solving techniques. Pseudosciences don't use these techniques.
  10. Paradigm Shift
    • Who?
    •     Kuhn
    • What?    A change in
    • world view. There is no rational way to decide which world view wins, it is up
    • to the mob mentality.
  11. Progressive vs.
    Degenerating Research Programme
    • Who?     Lakatosh
    • What?    Research
    • Programs (sciences) are either progressive or degenerative. Progressive
    • research programs predict novel facts. Degenerative programs lag behind facts
    • and try to catch up.
  12. SETI
    • Who?
    • NASA

    What?    Search Extra Terrestrial Intelligence
  13. Zeta Reticuli Star Map
    • Who?
    •     Betty Hill
    • What?    While hypnotized
    • Betty Hill drew this map that she "saw" while abducted. Later a
    • constellation was discovered that looked exactly like the one Betty drew.
  14. The interrupted Journey
    • Who?     Fuller
    • What?    A book written
    • about the Barney and Betty Hill abduction. Greatly publicized their story.
  15. The N.A.C.A.F.E.R.
    • Who?     Clancy
    • What?  Clancy's
    • description of what really happens to alien abductees, the process that they go
    • through to come to the conclusion that they were abducted by aliens.
  16. Sleep Paralysis
    • Who?
    •     Clancy
    • What?    A common
    • condition that occurs when sleep cycles become temporarily desynchronized.
    • Cognitively awake while motor muscle output from the brain is still turned off.
  17. The
    General Theory
    Who?     Keynes

  18. The
    Road to Serfdom
    Who?     Hyack


    American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (2009)
    • Who?     Obama
    • Administration

    What? Obama signed it to help the economy
  20. Casual
    Density Problem
    • Who?     Manzi
    • What?    There are A LOT
    • of things that influence social sciences, specifically macroeconomics.
  21. Controlled
    Experiment Problem
    Who? Manzi

  22. Generalization
    Who?     Manzi

  23. Humbug
    Who?     Max Black

    • What?    Deceptive;
    • short of lying
  24. Intellectual
    Who?     Wittgenstein

    • What?    Talking
    • sloppy; ie, “I feel like a dog that’s been run over by a car”
  25. Bullshit
    Who?     Frankfurt

    • What?    Misrepintation
    • ; not interested in the facts; deception; indifferent to the truth
  26. Truthiness
    Who?     Colbert

    • What?    Truth that
    • comes from the gut (intuition)
  27. Stovepiping
    Who?     Rumsfeld

Card Set
Theory of Knowledge
Philosophy, Theory of Knowledge Test One