Final Exam Tests

  1. Which type of gland secretes a substance that is secreted into the stomach?
  2. Hormones are transported from their source gland to their target gland through
    the bloodstream
  3. Which of the following is not a major endocrine gland?
  4. Steroid and steroid-like hormones are characterized by
    • A base structure of four fused organic rings
    • By being able to turn genes on or off, they bind to a receptor in the nucleus
  5. Hormones affect the activity of selected cells because
    They bind to specific receptors that are located only on their target cells
  6. Hormone second messengers may
    • Promote the synthesis of specific proteins
    • Activate enzymes
    • Initiate secretion of hormones
    • Include cAMP
  7. Prostaglandins
    • Regulate cellular responses to hormones
    • Increase the production of cAMP in a cell
  8. Prostaglandins may
    • Cause contraction of the smooth muscles in the uterus
    • Relax smooth muscles of blood vessels
    • Promote inflammation of injured tissue
  9. Negative feedback mechanisms
    Cause the production of a hormone to increase if the process controlled by the hormone decreases
  10. Which of the following glands is located in the brain?
    b.Pineal gland
    d.Adrenal gland
    • Hypothalamus
    • Pineal gland
  11. Tropic Hormones
    Stimulate other endocrine glands to release hormones
  12. The hypothalamus receives information about the internal environment of the body mostly from
    The nervous system
  13. Each hormone produced by the hypothalamus
    Affects a specific subpopulation of cells in the anterior pituitary gland
  14. Portal veins
    Transport blood from one capillary bed to another capillary bed
  15. The posterior pituitary gland releases hormones produced
    In the hypothalamus
  16. Controls the growth of muscle tissue
    Growth hormone
  17. Controls the production of mil
  18. Production is inhibited by somatostatin
    Growth hormone
  19. Promotes the secretion of sex hormones in both males and females
    Luteinizing hormone
  20. Stimulates growth of the thyroid gland
    Thyroid-stimulating hormone
  21. Production is stimulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone
    Luteinizing hormone
  22. Production is stimulated by growth hormone-releasing hormone
    Growth hormone
  23. Which of the following hormones is produced by the anterior pituitary gland?
    Adrenocorticotropic hormone
  24. The secretion of growth hormone
    • Varies during the day
    • Is greatest during sleep
    • Is affected by nutritional state of the person
  25. Which of the following hormones is/are produced by the adrenal medulla?
    • Epinephrine
    • Norepinephrine
  26. The functions of blood include
    • Transportation of vital substances
    • Distribution of heat
    • Linking the internal and external environments
    • Maintaining the stability of interstitial fluids
  27. The amount of blood in a body varies
    • With changes in fluid concentration
    • With changes in electrolyte concentration
    • With body size
  28. The “formed elements” in blood include
    Red blood cells
  29. Agranulocytes include
    • Monocytes
    • T lymphocytes
  30. Which of the following conditions can affect red blood cell counts in a person?
    • Living in Colorado versus living in Galveston
    • Training for a marathon
    • Age
  31. Which pairing of stage of development and location of red blood cell production is correct?
    Embryonic development – Red bone marrow
    Fetal development – Liver
    Infancy – Adrenal gland
    Childhood – Yolk sac
    Adulthood – Spleen
    Fetal development – Liver
  32. Which element is required for synthesis of hemoglobin?
  33. An individual red blood cell remains in circulation for
    About 4 months
  34. Sickle cell disease (anemia) is characterized by
    Abnormaly shaped red blood cells
  35. When damaged red blood cells are removed from circulation,
    • The iron is recycled into new hemoglobin
    • The remainder of the heme molecule is converted to bilirubin and biliverdin
    • The bilirubin and biliverdin are excreted as bile pigments
  36. Which of the following are antigens found on the surface of red blood cells and involved in the compatibility of blood between a donor and a recipient?
    • A antigens
    • B antigens
    • Rh antigens
  37. The most common blood group in the United States is
    Type O
  38. Erythroblastosis fetalis occurs when
    An Rh negative mother’s blood is exchanged with her second or subsequent Rh-positive fetus’s blood
  39. The blood group of universal blood donors is
  40. White blood cells
    • Are involved in protecting the body against disease
    • Are produced in response to stimulation by hormones
  41. Which of the following is not a characteristic used to determine the type of white blood cell being observed?
    Lifespan of the cell
  42. Which types of white blood cells are phagocytic?
    • Neutrophil
    • Monocyte
  43. As a response to bacterial invasion,
    • Tissues become red
    • Tissues swell
    • White blood cells move rapidly to the location of the bacteria
    • White blood cells, bacteria, and damaged cells accumulate to form pus
  44. The most numerous leukocytes
  45. Elevated in parasitic worm infections
  46. Cytoplasm stains deep blue
  47. May live for many years
  48. Largest blood cell
  49. Albumin is a plasma protein that
    Helps maintain colloid osmotic pressure
  50. Nonprotein nitrogenous substances in the blood include
    • Urea
    • Creatine
    • Amino acids
  51. Which of the following is not an electrolyte carried in the blood plasma?
    Oxygen (Note: This is the only one that is not an electrolyte.)
  52. Hemostasis refers to
    The stoppage of bleeding
  53. Blood loss after injury to a blood vessel is minimized by
    • Spasms of the blood vessels
    • Formation of a platelet plug
    • Coagulation of the blood
  54. TRUE
    • The secretion of hormones is precisely regulated.
    • Oxytocin is an example of a peptide hormone.
    • Antidiuretic hormone is also known as vasopressin.
    • Thyroxine and triiodothyronine regulate metabolism.
    • Calcitonin helps control the concentrations of calcium and phosphate ion in the blood.
    • Parathyroid hormone stimulates the release of calcium from bones.
    • Endocrine glands decrease in size as the body ages.
    • Granulocytes are descended from myeloid stem cells
  55. FALSE
    • Steroid hormones activate second messengers that perform the metabolic function controlled by that hormone.
    • The anterior pituitary gland is also known as the neurohypophysis
    • Norepinephrine is an example of a peptide hormone
    • Thymosins regulate circadian (day/night) cycles.
    • Physical stress, but not psychological stress, induces the hypothalamus to signal other endocrine glands to respond.
    • Epinephrine is responsible for long-term adjustment to stress.
    • Hematopoietic stem cells can divide to produce any cell in the body.
    • The hormone that stimulates red blood cell production is erythromycin.
    • Agglutination is the formation of a blood clot after injury to a blood vessel.
    • Diapedesis is the process describing the movement of a cell by creating extensions called pseudopodia
  56. The purpose of the endocrine system is to maintain
  57. Reticulocytes are immature
    Red blood cells
  58. After tissue damage, a long series of steps occurs in the formation of a blood clot. In the final step, fibrinogen is converted to ________ and forms a fiber mesh trapping the red blood cells in the clot.
  59. An __________ is an abnormal blood clot moving through the blood vessels.
  60. Name one of the hormones secreted by the pancreas and responsible for controlling the blood-glucose concentration.
    Insulin, glucagon
  61. Give two characteristics of red blood cells.
    Biconcave discs, no nucleus, no mitochondria, large surface area, 7.5 µm diameter, 2.0 µm thick, thin near the center and thicker near the edges, approximately 1/3 hemoglobin, transport O2
  62. Give two factors that inhibit formation of blood clots.
    Smooth lining of blood vessels, heparin in the blood or as a treatment, antithrombin, fibrin threads adsorbing thrombin, prostacyclin (inhibits adherence of platelets to blood vessel walls), coumadin, large cut/gash that bleeds heavily, tPA (tissue plasminogen activator) dissolving clots, potentially an embolus breaking loose and reopening a vessel
  63. Describe briefly one way that blood clots can be formed within intact blood vessels.
    • Atherosclerosis – the accumulation of fatty deposits (plaque) in blood vessels causing narrowed lumens that can trap small clots (may progress to arteriosclerosis in which the blood vessel walls degenerate, lose elasticity, become hard, and may rupture)
    • Slow blood flow – allows clotting factors to become more concentrated in a local area (may be due to inactivity, causes deep vein thrombosis)
    • Agglutination due to infusion with incompatible blood
    • Clot formation in a severed vessel would not qualify as an intact vessel, but a vessel with a slit in the side of the vessel may be interpreted as being intact. The above answers would be more appropriate.
Card Set
Final Exam Tests
Final Exam Tests