a sender sends a message to a receiver within a channel through noise.
examples-text message, email
types of noise
physiological-happening in body(tired/hungry)
psychological-happening in mind
interactive model(two way)
feedback is expected and given and the message is affected by fields of experience(how one interprets a message based on their own understanding
examples-meetings, presentations, classrooms, etc
The sensory dimension (Sound, Sight, touch, taste, or scent) used to transmit information during communication
Situations in which communication occurs
The established, coherent set of beliefs, attitudes, values, and practices shared by a large group of people
Verbal and non-verbal messages that recievers use to indicate their reaction to communication, such as a frown or saying "I disagree."
A series of messages exchanged between people, whether face to face or online
A dynamic form of communication between two (or more) people in which the messages exchanged significantly influence their thoughts, emotions, behaviors and relationships
Communication involving only one person, such as yourself.
The package of information transported during communication
Environmental factors that impede a message on the way to its destination
The individual for whom a message is intended or to whom it is delivered
The individual who generates, packages, and delivers a message
Sequence of interactions between individuals -- message of one influences the message of the other
Interconnected elements -- change in one affects all other elements
relationships are I-Thou when
we embrace similarities
communicate with honesty, respect and kindness
thinning the distance between us
Relationships are I-It when
we focus on differences
treat others like objects, and are disrespectful
'thickening" the distance between us
meta communication is
communication about communication, like "just kidding"
In practice, this relationship refers to dialogic relations or face-to-face verbal communication between two people involving their mutual ideas, thought, behaviour, ideals, liking, disliking, and the queries and answers concerning life and living in nature
the three goals of ipc
self presentation-how you want others to see you
relationship-creating, maintaining, and ending relationships
The elements of a social scientific scholarly article
Abstract-summary of what the article is about
Literature Review(Hypotheses-qualitative)(research questions-quantitative)
Methods-How was the study done?(participants and sampling-how did you find the participants)
Dismissive attachment-low anxiety and high avoidance
Fearful attachment-high avoidance and high anxiety
emphasizes individual goals and needs over others
collectivist culture emphasizes
belonging to groups that reward for your loyalty and concern for the good of the group
examples of faces are:
school, partner, child, parent
a mask is
a public self designed to conceal your private self
when information arises or thing happen that make us lose face
face threatening acts.
these are embarrassing so we attempt to save face
the five ways to improve your online self-presentation are
project a positive online image-screen names, email addresses, etc
make wise choices in words and images you use
be wary of the information that contradicts your self image(other people's post about you)
routinely conduct web searches on yourself
keep the interview test in mind
how verifiable is information online about someone is called?
revealing private information about ourselves to other people is called
the interpersonal process intimacy model of intimacy says that
the closeness we feel to others is created through
---self disclosure and
---responsiveness to others to disclose to us
we reveal ourselves in layers, like an onion. this is described by;
the social penetration theory
the johari window shows that
some aspects of self are open to share with others and some remain hidden
the three steps of perception are
selection-focusing attention on certain stimuli or environment. (salience)
organization-structuring the selected information into a coherent pattern in your mind(punctuation)
interpretation-assigning meaning to selected information
-salient information is usually visually and audibly stimulating, what our goals lead us to view as important-like paying attention in class, and they may be things that deviate from our expectations.
organizing the information into a chronological sequence that matches how you experienced the events
the two ways we assign meaning to selected information are
using familiar information to provide reference
creating explanations for behaviors
making sense of others' communication by comparing it to what we already know, and using it to interpret people, events, and relationships
attributions answer the question "why?' T/F?
character or personality-when you say someone did something because they're nice or because they're a jerk
based on situation
the tendency to blame internal causes when it may be external causes
fundamental attribution error-common in texts and email
the tendency to attribute external factors to your own behavior(usuasly negative)
self serving bias
the tendency to attribute internal factors to our own behavior(usually positive)
Uncertainty Reduction Theory(URT)
we aim to explain and predict people
URT strategies to reduce uncertainty include
passive strategies-stalk them on FB
active strategies-ask someone about them
interactive strategies-talk directly to them
gender/sex affects on perception
Cerebral cortex differences
-men:time and speed perception, mentally rotating 3D figures
-women;spacial relationships, identify emotions, and language skills
An individual's way of thinking, feeling and acting, based on the traits that he or she possesses.
General and global impressions of people, either positive or negative.
Gestalts more likely to be positive.
Emphasis on negative information.
Positively interpret what someone says or does because we have a positive Gestalt of them.
The tendency to negatively interpret the communication and behavior of people for whom we have negative Gestalts.
Taking all the information you know about somebody and comparing it and making an idea of how the person is overall and being able to judge them differently when you gain more information.
Placing somebody into a category then judging them based upon what you know about people that within that category.
Being able to identify with the feelings of others.
List 3 ways to check your perception.
1) Check your punctuation.
2) Check your knowledge
3) Check your attributions
4) Check your perceptual influences.
5) Check your impressions.
The ability to see things from someone else's vantage point without necessarily experiencing that person's emotions.
This is the tendency for the first items presented in a series to be remembered better or more easily, or for them to be more influential than those presented later in the series. If you hear a long list of words, it is more likely that you will remember the words you heard first (at the beginning of the list) than words that occurred in the middle. This is the primacy effect. You should also note that you will be likely to remember words at the end of the list more than words in the middle, and this is called the recency effect.Read more: http://www.alleydog.com/glossary/definition.php?term=Primacy%20Effect#ixzz3SDTqRH9y
Big Five personality traits(OCEAN)
conscientiousness-self awareness 7 staying on task
neurotism-negative emotions, thinking negatively
implicit personality theories
another way to reduce uncertainty about others
we often assume certain personality traits go together
short-term feelings that are linked to specific situations
an intense reaction that controls how we interpret and respond to an event
features of emotion
triggered by outside events
involve a physiological arousal(cry, throw up, sweat, etc)
are governed by preexisting norms
are reflected in verbal and non verbal displays
the six primary emotions
short term emotional reactions to events with limited arousal, and do not trigger attempts to manage expression
feelings. eg, relief, flattery
low intensity long lasting states not reactions to specific events
eckman and friesen's unwritten codes that govern the ways in which people manage and express their emotions
3. simulation-acting emotional
4. inhibition-acting emotionless
5. masking-hiding the true emotion with another
the ability to interpret your own and others' ion accurately and use this to communicate effectively
stages of grief
bargaining-people turn to faith
depression-often the worst part
the two factors of online communication that often contribute to lack of empathy